Year (normalized) before 1910×
  • ¡Cuarenta y un maricones!
    After a scandalous raid in Mexico City in which forty-two homosexual men were detained, known as the Ball of the Forty-One, the poem describes the possible foundation of a mutual aid society in which a dance was mentioned: “El traje debía de ser [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778106

  • [Extracts from 7th Annual Message of James Monroe, 5th President of the United States, Dated December 2, 1823]
    In this 1823 speech, President James Monroe announces a new agreement that forbids European nations from invading countries in the Western Hemisphere. He begins by recounting that the agreement has been negotiated through the Russian government, and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1055512

  • [La casa marcada con el número 000...]
    Castrejón, Eduardo A.
    This novel by Eduardo A. Castrejón is based on the Baile de los 41 [The Dance of the 41], a notorious raid that took place in Mexico City in which 42 homosexual men were arrested. It tells the tale of a gathering hosted by a couple, Mimi and Ninón, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779575

  • 42, 43 y 44
    [This document entails] humorous dialogue between two apparent homosexuals. The anonymous writer refers to a word game with the numbers (forty-two, forty-three and forty-four) that would represent the masculinity of the two workers who are attacking [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778156

  • A Europa e a América Latina a opinião corrente
    Bomfim, Manoel José do, 1868-
    In this text, Manoel Bomfim criticizes the European attitude toward Latin America. According to the author, this attitude is due to sheer European ignorance about Latin American countries. He acknowledges that this posture had been changing, with [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 832506

  • A America Latina : I
    Romero, Sílvio, 1851-1914
    Echoing what Manoel de Bonfim had written previously, in his 1903 book A América Latina: males de origem [832506 and 833254], Sílvio Romero attributes the “ills” of Latin America to the Iberian colonization inflicted by predatory nations like [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 776408

  • A nuestros lectores
    In the introduction to volume three (issue number one) of El Fotografo Mexicano [The Mexican Photographer], the editors and editorial staff assert their wish to perform the noble task of disseminating photography, as well as thanking the readers for [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 792886

  • A propósito de Acebedo Bernal [sic]
    Grillo, Max, 1868-
    The Colombian poet Max Grillo claims that there is an aesthetic sense that is common to all the arts. In his opinion, to enjoy the visual arts, literature, or music, one must have the ability to feel and understand the emotions that are inherent to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1094092

  • A sa Majesté l'empereur Napoléon III
    Calvo, Carlos, 1822-1906
    This suite of documents includes Charles (Carlos) Calvo’s (1824–1906) letter to Napoleon III, the response from M. Thouvenel, Minister of the French Foreign Office, and the introduction to Calvo’s book, Recueil complet des traités, conventions [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1052451

  • Actas de los jurados de calificación : República de Colombia : Bogotá, Febrero 18 de 1887
    This document brings together a group of minutes and reports pertinent to the awarding of prizes at the Primera Exposición Anual of the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes of Colombia, held on that institution’s premises (San Bartolomé building) [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1132596

  • Actualidades : el fusil y no las faldas
    Muñoz Serrano, Benito
    After a scandalous raid in Mexico City in which forty-two homosexual men were detained, subsequently known as the Ball of the Forty One, this satirical poem calls the Forty-One (among other things) “viciosos inmundos [dissolute, filthy] / nutridos [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778131

  • Advertencia
    Bomfim, Manoel José do, 1868-
    In this historical review written in the early twentieth century, Manoel de Bomfim discusses economic, socio-political, and cultural conditions in Latin America. His objective here is to analyze the various problems afflicting the Americas as they [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 776434

  • Album del extremo oriente : A Hyoshio Furukava
    Tablada, José Juan, 1871-1945
    In 1900, Revista Moderna [Modern Magazine]— the bastion of modernismo in the Spanish-speaking world—published two important essays by José Juan Tablada on Japanese art, both of which positioned him as a prominent authority on that subject. The [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778175

  • Álbum del extremo oriente : Los pintores japoneses
    Tablada, José Juan, 1871-1945
    This article, published in Revista Moderna [Modern Magazine]?which contributed to the rise of modern art criticism (in particular of the kind inspired by Charles Baudelaire and by the French parameters)?sketches a brief history of Japanese painting. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778184

  • Algo sobre bellas artes
    Laso, Francisco
    The 1859 article by Peruvian painter Francisco Laso on the history of Peruvian architecture, sculpture, and painting is primarily a critique of the lack of support for artists in Peru. Laso contends that the inferiority of Peruvian artistic [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1125154

  • Algumas idéais sobre as belas artes e a indústria no Império do Brasil
    Pôrto Alegre, Manuel de Araújo
    The author’s nationalist approach takes into account the imbalances created by slavery in a developing nation with no homogenous social structure of its own. In his essay, the painter Porto-Alegre challenges colonial impositions on fashion, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150819

  • Algunas palabras acerca del juicio en materia de fotografía
    The writer of this article discusses some of the formal changes that photography must undergo in order to improve the presentation and subjects captured. To that end, he proposes that professional photographers abandon their studio props: “the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 800085

  • Ariel
    Rodó, José Enrique, 1871-1917
    In this text, José Enrique Rodó outlines his vision for a future Latin American civilization based on the pursuit of idealism. He stages this description as a lecture being delivered by an elderly teacher named Prospero to his young students. Rod [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1055578

  • Arte melancólico
    Flores, Manuel María
    In this interesting article, the poet Manuel M. Flores exposes the contrast between the character and nature of life in Mexico (busy, erotic and festive) and the national art in all its manifestations (melancholic and grave in nature). Alluding to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778168

  • Arte y artistas : dos exposiciones : pintura y escultura : los pensionados mexicanos en Europa : acontecimientos musicales del año
    Tablada, José Juan, 1871-1945
    This interesting article by the critic Okusai (the pseudonym of José Juan Tablada) reports on the two important art exhibitions held in Mexico in 1906: that of the magazine Savia Moderna [Modern Sap] and another of artists sponsored by the Mexican [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 789249

  • Artistas extranjeros : el maestro Caboni
    This article reports the presence of [Efisio] Caboni at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City. The author provides a biographical sketch of the Italian master born in Rome. He recounts his education in Italy and some of the difficulties that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 759171

  • As bellas-artes nos colonos pretos do Brazil: a esculptura
    Nina Rodrigues, Raymundo, 1862-1906
    This text discusses African sculpture and sculpture produced by African slaves and their descendents in Brazil. The analysis begins with statues used in Afro-Brazilian religions, some of which represent priests possessed by gods. Other works are [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110427

  • Bellas Artes
    Hijar y Haro, Alfredo
    This article is seminal because it is one of the few to mention photography as part of the fine arts program at the Academia de San Carlos. The writer describes various artistic media, such as sketches, drawings, and paintings, which all clearly [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 759164

  • Bellas Artes
    Manrique Convers, Pedro Carlos
    After discussing the artistic development of Colombian painter Epifanio Garay, and mentioning his time at the Académie Julian in Paris and his interest in and knowledge of the works in the Louvre, the author turns to Garay’s portraits. Manrique [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1094076

  • Chismitos del día : los 41 de Marras. Nacieron de nuevo
    Montes de Oca, Francisco
    After a scandalous raid in Mexico City— known as the Ball of the Forty-One—in which forty-two homosexual men were detained, El Popular kept up its mocking tone in sarcastic short pieces: “––Listen, bitch, I thought of an idea to keep them [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778101

  • Conclusao
    Gonzaga Duque-Estrada, Luis
    The Brazilian writer and art critic Luis Gonzaga Duque Estrada presents a strong critique of the notion of an escola brazileira, [Brazilian school] promoted by the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes.  Since its origins, he argues, the escola [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1125269

  • Conferencias sobre perspectiva y otros principios de dibujo: primera conferencia
    Urdaneta, Alberto, 1845- 1887
    The book Conferencias sobre perspectiva y otros asuntos de dibujo, dictadas en el Colegio de San Bartolomé was published in 1881 by the artist and arts promoter Alberto Urdaneta. The publication begins with a quotation from Leonardo Da Vinci on [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1135742

  • Crónica : algunas notas sobre pintura : a José Juan Tablada, a Gerardo Murillo
    Zárraga, Angel
    This article is an interesting reflection by Ángel Zárraga on the art of the painter’s era, sent from Spain to the magazine Savia Moderna; at the time, he was also an amateur writer. He dedicates the article to two key figures that were beginning [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 781743

  • Cuerpos para un espacio en América
    Ramos, María Elena, 1947-
    In this essay, which is arranged in five sections, María Elena Ramos discusses Cornelis Zitman’s sculptures and drawings. In the first section Ramos explains how the artist has chosen to portray the female form with exaggerated features that do [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1171913

  • Datos biográficos sobre Francisco Antonio Cano
    Uribe Ángel, Manuel, 1822-1904
    This biographical overview—the first one ever published in Antioquia on an artist from the region—begins by describing Colombian artist Francisco Antonio Cano’s humble background and difficult childhood. From a young age, Cano took an interest [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1094510

  • Decreto No. 585 de 1882 (18 de octubre), por el cual se reglamenta la Ley 67 de 1882
    Zaldua, Francisco J. (Francisco Javier), 1811- 1882
    This decree issued by Francisco Javier Zaldúa (1811–1882), president of the United States of Colombia, enacts Law 67 of 1882, which authorizes the creation of the publically funded Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes in Bogotá. This government [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1132580

  • Del patrioterismo en el arte
    Malharro, Martín
    Despite the title “Del patrioterismo en el arte,” in this article the Argentinean painter Martín Malharro rejects the idea of a narrowly prescribed and defined national art school. He partially does so in opposition to the influence of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1125318

  • Discurso : leído por D. Pedro Nel Ospina en el concierto celebrado en beneficio del pintor Francisco A. Cano
    Ospina, Pedro Nel, 1858- 1927
    This unusually incisive and analytic speech given by Pedro Nel Ospina at the concert held in Medellín in 1898 to support painter Francisco Antonio Cano demonstrates the social situation of the artist from the Antioquia region at the turn of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1100252

  • Discurso pronunciado en el acto clausural de la primera exposición de pintura de Medellín
    Restrepo, Antonio José
    Medellín was still a very small town when its first exhibition of paintings opened to the public on July 20, 1892. The event was organized by the artist and critic Samuel Velásquez and the painter and photographer Emiliano Mejía, who had trained [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1094028

  • El “Salón” de alumnos en Bellas Artes
    Tablada, José Juan, 1871-1945
    A visit to the salon of Antonio Fabrés’ students inspires the author to praise the master and his teaching methods, whose rigor in drafting and striking subjectivity had trampled the old methods of the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes (formerly [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 786659

  • El arte nuevo y el socialismo
    Ugarte, Manuel
    In this article, Manuel Ugarte, who was quite well known in Latin American modernist circles, discusses a speech that Jean Jaurès gave at the Porte Saint-Martin Theater in Paris that was introduced by Anatole France. Ugarte is surprised by the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778219

  • El baile “Travestí” del Gobernador del distrito
    This story details one of the basic reasons for the scandal of the Forty-One: the excesses of the upper class, who lived for dances and social display. With Pedro Rincón Gallardo, governor of the Federal District, presiding, the dictator and the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778080

  • El baile de los cuarenta y uno : los enviados a Yucatán
    El Popular published an article in which two village women, who were scandalized, commented on the recent events and the punishment applied to the dancers, who were consigned to the state of Yucatán. Thus a half-serious, half-jesting text was added [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778096

  • El baile escandaloso
    Written after a scandalous raid in Mexico City in which forty-two homosexual men were detained, known as the Ball of the Forty-One, the purpose of this article was to contradict what was already generally known: “There are those who state that the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778136

  • El baile nefando
    This article is the first one to mention the aspect that will make this news item popular and notorious: “The fact is that a number of people in a segment of society deemed honorable were by chance discovered in a sphere that represents extreme [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778126

  • El feminismo se impone
    Posada, José Guadalupe, 1852-1913
    The synopsis and the annotations in English are coming soon. However, our bilingual readers can click on “Español” to access this information in Spanish [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779764

  • El gran viaje de los 41 maricones para Yucatán
    Posada, José Guadalupe, 1852-1913
    The synopsis and the annotations in English are coming soon. However, our bilingual readers can click on “Español” to access this information in Spanish [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779755

  • El impresionismo en Bogotá (I)
    Hinestroza Daza, Ricardo, 1874- 1963
    This article by Ricardo Hinestrosa Daza is divided into ten parts. In the first, the author discusses the concept of “emotion” formulated by educator Baldomero Sanín Cano in the November 1904 and January 1905 issues of Revista Contemporánea. In [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1088036

  • El impresionismo en Bogotá I
    Sanín Cano, Baldomero, 1861- 1957
    This article contains two parts. In the first, its author—Colombian writer and critic Baldomero Sanín Cano—discusses Impressionism and its conception. He bases his disquisition on notions of the behavior of color and light formulated by [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1080092

  • El impresionismo en Bogotá II
    Sanín Cano, Baldomero, 1861- 1957
    This article is divided into two parts. In the first, its author, Baldomero Sanín Cano, reveals not only his ignorance about the craft of painting, but also how he envisions the text and the subject it addresses. In the second, he describes the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1079572

  • El impresionismo en pintura
    De Gouffra, Charles
    This long and didactic article by art critic Charles de Gouffra introduces the theoretical principles underlying Impressionism. The text is divided into six sections: (i) an introduction, which formulates a periodization of that French painting [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1100542

  • El museo-taller de Alberto Urdaneta: Estudio descriptivo
    Girón, Lázaro María
    By way of an introduction, Lázaro María Girón dedicates the first part of this text to discussing the risk that the private collection of Colombian painter, draftsman, and journalist Alberto Urdaneta [will] be dispersed. He recalls the neutral [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1098046

  • El viaje de los cuarenta y uno. Diario colectivo
    El Popular continued its series of articles riddled with mockery and denigrating comments, such as the supposed “Trip Diary” that described the tribulations of the consigned Forty-One before they reached the Yucatán. Sarcasm based on their [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 778111

  • Escuela de Bellas Artes : (clausura de la exposición)
    This text is the final report on the Primera Exposición Anual de la Escuela de Bellas Artes held from December 4, 1886 to February 20, 1887. The document assesses the works and collections in the exhibition; it describes the different sections of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1132356

  • Escuela de Bellas Artes de Colombia
    Campo Serrano, Jose María, 1832- 1915; Ospina Camacho, José Domingo; Pardo Vergara, Joaquín; Urdaneta, Alberto, 1845- 1887
    Presidential decree No. 626 issued on October 26, 1886established that an exhibition of artworks would be held as one of the events marking the beginning of modern art education in Colombia with the founding of the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1132320