Topic Descriptor: biennials (exhibitions)×
  • Bienal de Churuguara : más leña para el fuego
    Suazo, Félix, 1966-
    In 1998, the Cuban art researcher and curator established in Venezuela, Félix Suazo, presented his review of the ninth round of the Bienal de Churuguara (State of Falcón). It was held in the Ateneo Casta J. Riera, and its purpose was to reconsider [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1166214

  • Bienal de Guayana del Salón Nacional a la región globalizada
    Rangel, Gabriela, 1963-
    The synopsis and the annotations in English are coming soon. However, our bilingual readers can click on “Español” to access this information in Spanish [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1162231

  • Bienal de San Juan
    Tolentino, Marianne de
    The French critic and historian based in the Dominican Republic, Marianne de Tolentino, wrote a critical review of the IV Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano [4th San Juan Biennial of Latin American Graphic Arts] (1979) organized by the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 805900

  • Bienal e boicote no protesto inócuo
    Ferraz, Geraldo, 1905-1979
    The writer and art critic Geraldo Ferraz discusses the boycott of the tenth Bienal de São Paulo (1969), noting that the artists’ refusal to participate in the international exhibition would cause irreparable damage to the event. He calls the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111042

  • Bienal e participação... do povo
    Pedrosa, Mário
    This commentary by Mário Pedrosa centers on the large audiences that admired and interacted with the works exhibited at the IX São Paulo Biennial (1969). He states that: “art has ceased to be that distant and humorless thing, that terribly [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111108

  • Bienal primer balance : Cero originalidad
    Palencia Alvarez Tubau, Ceferino
    Art critic Ceferino Palencia identified the advantages of contests such as the one held within the context of the Inter-American Biennial of Painting and Printmaking. In the first place, he said, such contests gave painters the possibility of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 769937

  • Bienal quando nasce é para todos
    Lemos, Fernando
    Fernando Lemos disagrees with most of the critics of the day when he asserts that the growth of the São Paulo Biennial—and of its Brazilian section in particular—should not be curtailed. Due to the large number of participants, “the Brazilian [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110908

  • Bienal, passarela de gênios
    Vieira, José Geraldo, 1897-1977
    In this brief article, critic José Geraldo Vieira analyzes how Brazilian art has been influenced by constant contact with foreign tendencies at the São Paulo Biennial. In his view, everything shown “wholesale” at the biennial—especially in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110907

  • Bienal: significação do novo
    Machado, Lourival Gomes
    Lourival Gomes Machado evaluates the works exhibited at the V Bienal de São Paulo, where he was once again the artistic director. He identifies a radical shift in the approach of both the Brazilian and the international works; whereas they had [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110723

  • Candina abre nuevas puertas
    Cherson, Samuel B.
    Samuel Cherson, a Cuban art critic based in Puerto Rico, states that Casa Candina is responsible for the boom in contemporary Puerto Rican ceramics. The Primera Bienal de Cerámica Contemporánea Puertorriqueña [1st Biennial of Contemporary Puerto [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1055007

  • Cardoso : entre lo refinado y lo siniestro
    Gil Marín, Francisco Javier, 1955-
    The title, “Cardoso: entre lo refinado y lo siniestro” [Cardoso: Between the Refined and the Sinister] reflects the point of view of Javier Gil, a Colombian critic, on the work of his interviewee, María Fernanda Cardoso, a young artist who won [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 858335

  • Carta abierta a los pintores demagogos de México
    Tamayo, Rufino
    Rufino Tamayo wrote this letter to the demagogue painters, reminding them that two years earlier he had refused to take part in the Hispanic-American Biennial, and had declared himself to be openly anti-Franco. When he was invited to take part in the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 758238

  • Carta al lector
    González, Beatriz, 1938-
    Selected to represent Colombia at the 38th Venice Biennale (1978), Beatriz González explains why she chose one of her Telones [Curtains] for that international event whose theme was “From nature to art and from art to nature.” González [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 860666

  • Chile en la XII Bienal de París
    Richard, Nelly, 1948-
    In her essay Chile en la XII Bienal de París (Chile at the Twelfth Paris Biennial), Nelly Richard compares the history of Latin American art to the history of art (in its most visible European and North American versions) on the occasion of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 734895

  • Colombia Caballero : XII Bienal de Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo, 1973
    Serrano, Eduardo, 1939-
    Curator Eduardo Serrano comments on the exhibition of fellow Colombian Luis Caballero at the XII São Paulo Biennial (1973). In his view, Caballero’s work is indicative of the “independent direction that has been taken by new art from Colombia [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 865294

  • Comentarios a la Cuarta Bienal de Grabado
    Bayón, Damián
    The Argentine critic Damián Bayón, who lived in Puerto Rico during the 1950s, believes that the five-year hiatus in the Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano [San Juan Biennial of Latin American Graphic Art] was harmful to the event. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822562

  • Como é e como deveria ser a Bienal
    Bardi, P. M. (Pietro Maria), 1900-1999
    Pietro Maria Bardi lists four factors that should be considered as part of a complete overhaul that would make the Bienal de São Paulo comparable to the Biennale di Venezia: 1) Do not send an official invitation to the governments of the various [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111147

  • Con la Bienal se logra hoy lo que no lograron 60 años de propaganda demagógica : Dice el Doctor Atl
    Tibol, Raquel
    Raquel Tibol interviewed Dr. Atl, who declared his total agreement with the organizers of the Bienal Interamericana de Pintura y Grabado [Inter-American Biennial of Painting and Printmaking], sponsored by the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (INBA [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 758357

  • Conselho de Arte e Cultura
    Conselho de Arte e Cultura
    This was the official introduction to the Fourteenth São Paulo International Biennial, an exhibition that paid tribute with great fanfare to the founder, Francisco Matarazzo Sobrinho. As of the formation of a Conselho de Arte e Cultura (CAC), the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111110

  • Crítica sitiada, cá e lá
    Machado, Lourival Gomes
    This text by art critic, professor, and journalist Lourival Gomes Machado takes stock of Brazilian art criticism after the II Congresso de Críticos held in 1961.  Gomes Machado was the coordinator of the section of that event dedicated to the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110725

  • Críticos de América Latina votan contra una bienal de Arte Latinoamericano
    Amaral, Aracy A., 1930-
    Brazilian historian and critic Aracy Amaral assesses the decision to bring to an end the Bienal Latinoamericana de São Paulo (BLSP)—a one-time event held in 1978 parallel to the traditional São Paulo Biennial. The decision was made after the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1079493

  • Críticos, abstracionismo e figurativismo
    Jean, Yvonne, 1908-1974
    Using her personal annotations written during a tour of the First São Paulo Biennial (1951) as a starting point, the author transcribes some of the opinions of art critics of diverse nationalities regarding the definitions of “abstraction” and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111155

  • Cruz Diez : el acontecimiento color
    Popper, Frank, 1918-
    This essay by historian Frank Popper is written within the framework of the thirty-fifth Venice Biennale. The author’s thesis stems from the idea that an artist such as Carlos Cruz-Diez creates “situations,” which cause a series of effects that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 861671

  • Cuando el Tercer Mundo se mira a sí mismo : II Bienal de La Habana
    Tiscornia, Ana, 1951-
    In this opinion piece, Ana Tiscornia addresses the second Bienal de La Habana. Rather than describe specific works or artists, she assesses the objective of the event in relation to the political framework of the eighties. The notion of the “Third [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1184459

  • De la bienal de San Juan ¿cuáles obras escogería?
    Torres Martinó, José Antonio, 1916-2011
    Puerto Rican artist José A. Torres Martinó had a low opinion of the exhibition at the X Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano y del Caribe [10th San Juan Biennial of Latin American and Caribbean Graphic Art], held in 1993. Nevertheless, he [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 853494

  • Declaração dos artistas de São Paulo sobre a II Bienal
    A declaration written in manifesto format, in this text, artists and critics from São Paulo suggest a number of rules for the composition of the jury to select works for the II São Paulo Biennial (1953). The signers of the document demand a more [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110825

  • Desde Caracas : José Luis Cuevas satiriza la Bienal y traza con ácido corrosivo la caricatura de Siqueiros
    Cuevas, José Luis
    José Luis Cuevas was in Caracas when he received his invitation to the Bienal Interamericana de Pintura y Grabado [Inter-American Biennial of Painting and Printmaking] and he declined it when he learned of the control exerted by the members of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 772221

  • Detesto la palabra búsqueda : Oswaldo Vigas
    In this interview, Oswaldo Vigas gives his opinion about young art in Venezuela, based on his participation as a juror in the 2nd Bienal del Dibujo y del Grabado. The Venezuelan painter states that he hates the word “search” because he believes [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1152801

  • Discurso pronunciado por el Señor Licenciado Don Miguel Alvarez Acosta : con motivo de la inauguración de la Primera Bienal Interamericana de pintura y grabado, en el Museo Nacional de Artes Plásticas, el 6 de junio de 1958...
    In this speech given by Manuel Álvarez Acosta at the opening of the Primera Bienal Interamericana de Pintura y Grabado [First Inter-American Painting and Print Biennial] in 1958, the Mexican dramatist and cinematographer explained that one of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 823576

  • Dos carimbos à bolha
    Amaral, Aracy A., 1930-
    Aracy Amaral believes that the focus on daily life and reality undertaken by US Pop art woke up young Brazilian artists to the myths and symbols of the consumer society. In her opinion, the Brazilian hall at the IX Bienal de São Paulo shows that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110665

  • El caso de Luis Zevallos
    Ortiz de Zevallos M., Augusto
    This is the first extensive challenge to the artistic credentials of Motociclista No. 3, the painting by Luis Zevallos Hetzel that was awarded first prize at the painting competition organized by the Festivales de Ancón. The challenger is Augusto [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1142139

  • El descubrimiento del desarraigo
    Guevara, Roberto, 1932-1998
    In this essay, published in the catalogue for the first edition of the Bienal Barro de América (1992), the art critic Roberto Guevara discusses the concept of being uprooted and what that means in terms of a Venezuelan event that seeks to establish [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1161459

  • El especial realismo de Santiago Cárdenas
    Serrano, Eduardo, 1939-
    This text by Eduardo Serrano introduces the work Tres Pizarrones by Santiago Cárdenas, exhibited at the XIV Bienal de São Paulo in September 1977. The catalogue [in which the text was published] provides an overview of the artwork created by Cá [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1134945

  • El Jurado
    Homar, Lorenzo
    Lorenzo Homar presents an ink caricature of the jury at the Primera Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano [First Latin American Print Biennial, San Juan] held in 1970, whose members were: Arturo Dávila, director of the department of fine [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 863443

  • El largo calvario del grupo Medellín : una pelea de pintores (1)
    Vallejo, Félix Angel
    In this first part of a long article, published in two installments, the artist and curator Félix Ángel charts the rise of the generation of Colombian artists who came to be known as the “Once antioqueños” [Eleven Antioquians] in a critical [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1098208

  • El Perú en la Bienal de Sao Paulo
    Caillaux, Jorge
    In this essay Jorge Caillaux states that the new approach taken by the Bienal Internacional de São Paulo (1977) was “an acknowledgement of a new phase in the development of Latin American art;” he believes that the biennial board’s decision [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 855937

  • El rostro perfecto para un lugar difícil
    Cárdenas, María Luz
    María Luz Cárdenas reviews Dystopia, the work by the Venezuelan artist Sammy Cucher that was shown in the Venezuelan pavilion at the XLVI Biennale di Venezia (June-October, 1995). Dystopia was jointly produced by Cucher and the North American [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1164062

  • Elegancia sin aventura
    García Gutiérrez, Enrique
    Art critic Enrique García Gutiérrez reviews the IV Bienal de la Cerámica Puertorriqueña [4th Biennial of Contemporary Puerto Rican Ceramics] (1994) organized by Casa Candina. The writer reports that, compared with previous exhibitions, there [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1055028

  • En agenda la XI Bienal
    Torres Martinó, José Antonio, 1916-2011
    Puerto Rican artist José A. Torres Martinó comments on the news that the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña [ICP, Institute of Puerto Rican Culture], in spite of its lack of funding, plans to hold the XI Bienal de San Juan del Grabado [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 853543

  • En bienal se convertirá el Salón Panamericano de Artes Gráficas
    Valencia Diago, Gloria, 1927-
    Gloria Valencia Diago, a journalist for Bogota-based newspaper El Tiempo, describes the Salón Panamericano de Artes Gráficas (November-December 1970) as “the best part” of the X Festival de Arte of Cali (1970). She informs the public that the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1089645

  • En déficit la Bienal
    Torres Martinó, José Antonio, 1916-2011
    Puerto Rican artist José A. Torres Martinó reports that the VIII Bienal de San Juan del Grabado Latinoamericano y del Caribe [8th San Juan Biennial of Latin American and Caribbean Graphic Art], held in 1988, ended with a considerable financial [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 853660

  • Entre la renovación y el lamento
    García Gutiérrez, Enrique
    Puerto Rican critic Enrique García Gutiérrez wrote this review about the Premio Casa Candina [Casa Candina Prize] 1999: the VI Bienal de la Cerámica Contemporánea Puertorriqueña [6th Biennial of Contemporary Puerto Rican Ceramics]. In the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1055046

  • Entre o passado e o futuro = Between past and future
    Tassinari, Alberto
    This text by art critic Alberto Tassinari addresses the group Casa 7’s participation in the 1985 edition of the São Paulo Biennial. One of the characteristics of the group’s new strain of research is, according to Tassinari, the “arrangement [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111274

  • Entrevista : Sheila Leirner
    Lagnado, Lisette, 1961-; Leirner, Sheila, 1948-
    This text is an interview by art critic Lisette Lagnado with Sheila Leirner, the curator of the XVIII and XIX São Paulo Biennials. Leirner asserts that she believes that the tasks of art criticism and curating are of equal importance. Her education [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111294

  • Entrevista a Omar Rayo : Jurado de la Sexta Bienal del Grabado Latinoamericano.
    Fernandez, Margarita
    The Puerto Rican historian Margarita Fernández Zavala interviews the Colombian artist Omar Rayo about his participation and experience as a juror for the Sexta Bienal del Grabado Latinoamericano [6th Biennial of Latin American Graphic Art] in San [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 805005

  • Entrevista con Pierre Restany
    Di Maggio, Nelson
    The Primera Bienal de Escultura was held in Uruguay in 1969. The controversial French critic Pierre Restany was one of the guests at the event. Nelson Di Maggio interviewed Restany, and this document reports on some of the latter’s thoughts [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1241306

  • Este país no está para echar vaina : a fuego lento con Meyer Vaisman
    Alfonzo-Sierra, Edgar
    The journalist Edgar Alfonzo-Sierra interviews the Venezuelan artist Meyer Vaisman. The interview begins with a description of the artist and a mention of two occasions—the Bienal Christian Dior (Caracas, 1989) and the XLVI Biennale di Venezia ( [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1074023

  • Etsedrón o la carencia de interés libidinoso por la realidad
    Torrens, María Luisa
    In this text, María Luisa Torrens responds to Aracy Amaral’s article arguing that the installation entitled Etsedrón, which appeared at the 1975 (XIII) São Paulo Biennial, constituted a promising new direction for Latin American art. Torrens [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065137

  • Expor : impor ou propor?
    Pontual, Roberto, 1939-
    In this essay, the art critic Roberto Pontual points to the emergence of the curator and the “sensationalism” of exhibitions. In his opinion, both started appearing in the 1960s. Pontual tracks the historical development of these issues that led [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1110954

  • Figura & abstração
    Ferraz, Geraldo, 1905-1979
    Geraldo Ferraz comments on the fact that art critics were impatient to know whether or not the seventh Bienal de São Paulo (1963) had brought figurative art “back.” According to the critic Jacô Klintowitz, the question of whether their art will [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1111043