ICAA Researcher: Ricardo Kusunoki×
  • Polémica sobre el homenaje a Sérvulo : Juan Ríos responde a Juan Acha
    Rios, Juan, 1914-1991
    Author Juan Ríos continues his exchange of open letters by responding the publication of a letter in El Comercio (Lima, October 19, 1961), wherein Juan Acha defends himself against the accusation that he showed disrespect to Sérvulo Gutiérrez in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1151116

  • Sérvulo en la maraña y tras un camino
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    Well-known writer Sebastián Salazar Bondy states that, as in the case of Sérvulo Gutiérrez, there are lives and works “that stimulate debate, that appear destined to be fought over even after they have come to an end.” Regardless of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1151098

  • Polémica sobre el homenaje a Sérvulo : Juan Ríos responde a Juan Acha
    Rios, Juan, 1914-1991
    Author Juan Ríos responds to the letter published by El Comercio wherein Juan Acha responded to the first letter Ríos had sent to protest Acha’s assessment in the prologue to the catalogue for the Exposición Homenaje for Sérvulo Gutiérrez, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1151082

  • Exposición de Sérvulo en el Instituto de Arte
    Rios, Juan, 1914-1991
    Although Juan Ríos recognizes in this open letter to El Comercio the right people have to give their opinion “on the work of any artist, living or dead,” he believes that “unless the painter requests otherwise, then the prologue of a catalogue [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1151066

  • Sérvulo, el hombre
    Rios, Juan, 1914-1991
    Writer Juan Ríos offers a brief biography of Sérvulo Gutiérrez based on the memories of their first encounter in Paris (1938): “he gave the impression of a force of nature encased in a slight and high-strung body of a man;” he highlights the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1151050

  • Hacia la indigenización de nuestro concepto del mundo
    Lora Risco, Alejandro
    The author notes a dual American inheritance from both indigenous and western cultures in the Rufino Tamayo paintings exhibited in Lima. Playing against what he calls “Americanism” or “absolute indigenous-ness,” Alejandro Lora Risco [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1151010

  • Hacia la indigenización de nuestro concepto del mundo
    Lora Risco, Alejandro
    In search of an expression that would be authentically Latin American, Alejandro Lora Risco establishes the difference between American culture and reality, the latter referring to the material facts of life on the continent. Reflecting on his [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150993

  • Carlos More, pintor
    Larrea, Juan
    Spanish poet Juan Larrea comments on the Carlos More exhibition in Lima in 1931 and states that, before More, the Peruvian mountain ranges were illustrated and interpreted by people “who could not see them without deforming them in an arbitrary and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150975

  • Nuestros artistas presentes...
    Lora Risco, Alejandro
    Commentary by essayist Alejandro Lora Risco on the Mexican art show organized in Lima by La Crónica newspaper. From within the event’s massive audience, the author highlights the presence of the individuals most likely to read his text: Peruvian [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150959

  • A los pintores peruanos
    Guido, Angel Francisco
    Argentinean architect Ángel Guido—invitee to the I Congreso Internacional de Peruanistas—summarizes the genesis of modern painting in general terms: “Until Impressionism, toward reality. Afterward, toward ‘unreality.’ From there, the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150943

  • Gran problema del arte peruano es la falta de críticos : "Xanno" : Alejandro Romualdo Valle agregó que los que escriben sobre arte son improvisados o huachafos
    Valle, Alejandro Romualdo, 1926-2008
    In this interview, Alejandro Romualdo Valle (“Xanno”) reacts to the ideological turn that the debate as to whether or not there are painters in Peru has taken. He states that the real problem facing Peruvian art “is the lack of critics.” [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150928

  • El debate sobre pintura: carta del Sr. Juan Ríos R.
    Rios, Juan, 1914-1991
    In his response to the article published by the Agrupación Espacio, writer and critic Juan Ríos asserts that there are two positions in art today: “art for art’s sake” and socially committed art. He considers abstraction the extreme of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150912

  • Cristina Gálvez opina que sí hay pintores en el Perú: citó a cuatro : "Hay que ser muy intelectual para ser abstracto" dijo y añadió luego "Szyszlo no es intelectual"
    Gálvez, Cristina
    In response to de Szyszlo’s controversial statement “there are no painters in Peru,” sculptor Cristina Gálvez mentions four whom she considers excellent: Juan Manuel Ugarte Eléspuru, Ricardo Grau, Sérvulo Gutiérrez, and Julia Codesido. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150897

  • "Julia Codesido y Sabogal son buenos pintores" : Aquilles Ralli cree, además, que muchos sólo buscan la fama por medio de la publicidad
    Ralli, Aquiles, 1925-
    Painter Aquiles Ralli rejects the comments made by Fernando de Szyszlo that became a national scandal: “there are no painters in Peru.” He juxtaposes the work of the “good artists,” those who diligently “work in silence and never advertise [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150882

  • La "polémica de los pintores"
    Costa y Laurent, Federico
    The author, Federico Costa y Laurent, considers the discussion about nonfigurative art to be anecdotal when he states that “painting, as such, simply is.” He claims that the core issue in the debate comes down to “sincerely living the essential [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150866

  • "Qué arte abstracto ni que nada, el arte es esencialmente uno...": lo que debe hacer el pintor es "pintar", manifestó Sérvulo Gutiérrez
    Gutiérrez, Sérvulo
    In this text, Sérvulo Gutiérrez asserts that any classification that entails “dividing art” is conventional and falls into pigeonholing. It is misguided since it implies taking “a part for the whole.” Sérvulo Gutiérrez questions whether [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150851

  • Algunas notas sobre la pintura abstracta que se exhibe en la "Galería de Lima"
    This article, which is signed with the initials “F. F.,” reviews the exhibition of work by Enrique Kleiser, the Swiss-Peruvian artist, at the Galería de Lima. This was the first time that abstract—“better said, nonfigurative painting had [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150803

  • Definición del arte último
    Pérez Reinoso, Ramiro
    The author establishes a contrast between the bourgeois “sincerity of heart” and the “sincerity of the spirit” that characterizes the avant-garde. Ramiro Pérez Reinoso believes that this concept of the heart has been plagued by a “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150787

  • Los hombres y las cosas: cerámicas y tejidos incaicos
    Falcón, César, 1892-1970
    This article was written from Europe by the Peruvian writer and politician César Falcón. In his opinion, “Incan art” constitutes a legacy lacking in ideological direction and, in his judgment, transcendence. He attributes it with a dearth of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150771

  • De arte
    Szyszlo, Fernando de
    In this open letter from Fernando de Szyszlo to El Comercio newspaper, the artist responds to the remarks published on its pages by critic Carlos Raygada (Lima, May 29, 1951) regarding de Szyszlo’s exhibition of abstract paintings at the Asociació [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150755

  • De arte : exposición Szyszlo
    Raygada, Carlos, 1898-1953
    In this text, critic Carlos Raygada comments on the show of abstract paintings by fellow Peruvian Fernando de Szyszlo held at the Sociedad de Arquitectos del Perú in Lima in May 1951. While Raygada praises the works’ “total commitment to the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150738

  • Arte : las pinturas recientes de Fernando Szyszlo
    Pérez Barreto, Samuel (1921-2003)
    In this text, critic and librettist Samuel Pérez Barreto (S. P. B.) comments on the show of abstract paintings by fellow Peruvian Fernando de Szyszlo held at the Sociedad de Arquitectos del Perú in Lima. Pérez Barreto points out the deep [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150721

  • Encuesta : Ricardo Grau expone sus puntos de vista sobre la pintura y sus escuelas
    Moll, Eduardo, 1929-
    In this interview, Ricardo Grau reviews the major trends in the European visual arts from Manet to “the art known as Abstract,” identifying the School of Paris as the center of contemporary art. However, he also points out the importance of both [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150493

  • Estética de la fealdad
    Saco, Carmen, 1882-1948
    Carmen Saco, who studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes (ENBA) in the 1920s, was one of the first professional women sculptors in Peru. The time she spent at the ENBA proved decisive to the nationalist bent of a body of work characterized by [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150475

  • España en la Exposición Internacional de París
    Vallejo, César, 1892-1938
    In this article, the Peruvian poet César Vallejo reflects on the genre of portrayal, referring specifically to a bust of himself that was produced by the Spanish sculptor José de Creeft and exhibited at the 1925 International Exhibition in Paris. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150457

  • Sérvulo Gutiérrez opina llanamente sobre pintura y sobre pintores
    Moll, Eduardo, 1929-
    In this interview with Sérvulo Gutiérrez, the painter states that the European tradition is the most advanced in the world, showing his preference for both the School of Paris and Surrealism. In his opinion, the return to European models is the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150441

  • Artes Plásticas
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    Here, the writer sketches the artistic development reflected in the work of Alfredo Ruiz Rosas through the five years covered by the exhibition in the Peruvian capital. Bondy acknowledges the persistence of  “the same emotion” in the artist’s [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150376

  • En blanca y negra
    Miró Quesada Garland, Luis
    The writer Luis Miró Quesada Garland considers it wrong to brand any painting as either “Neo-Realist” or “Social Realist” based on a subjective interpretation of reality, with idealized figures and/or deformation as (a) technique(s). The [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150360

  • Artes Plásticas
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    In his comments, Sebastián Salazar Bondy praises the early accomplishments of the painter Sigfrido Laske, especially given the local milieu, “where art training is not as comprehensive as desirable.” His evidence of the artist’s talent is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150342

  • Un nuevo prejuicio (?)
    Goyburu, Emilio
    Emilio Goyburu opens this text by asserting that the “abstractionist prejudice” of which Abril de Vivero speaks on the pages of this same publication (Plástica) makes references to a form of snobbery inevitable in any movement that brings [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150326

  • Sobre un nuevo prejuicio
    Abril de Vivero, Francisco
    In this article, Francisco Abril de Vivero criticizes what he calls the “abstractionist prejudice,” claiming that conservative rejection of new tendencies is a constant throughout art history. At the same time, he acknowledges an “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150310

  • Cuatro edades de la pintura
    Goyburu, Emilio
    In this essay, Emilio Goyburu divides Western painting into periods on the basis of its “aesthetic facet.” He defines four “ages” that he envisions as a progression. In its “primitive” age—or genesis—painting acted as a “graphic [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150294

  • Presencia
    Neira Alva, Eduardo, 1924-
    In this text, Eduardo Neira Alva asserts that the “clear generational consciousness” in Latin America is evidenced by the existence of a number of journals that, like Espacio, express the thinking of groups “engaged in the great task of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150278

  • Ya se empieza a pintar la costa
    Fernández Prada, Luis, 1917-1973
    In this article, Luis Fernández Prada detects “a tendency to vindicate our coast,” one that, because lacking in a clear agenda, might end up becoming an authentic school of art. He points out, in contrast, the artistic deficiencies of “sierra- [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146856

  • La costa y la pintura peruana
    Pereira, Raúl María, 1916-2007
    In this article, critic Raúl María Pereira questions the “geographic location” and “theme” embraced by supposedly “neo-Peruvian” painting based on representation of the landscape and sierra motifs. The Peruvian coast has had little luck [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146840

  • El éxito de un artista peruano en Europa : Exposición de Cásar [sic] Moro, en Bruselas
    Miomandre, Francis de, 1880-1959
    In this article, the French writer Francis de Miomandre notes that Europeans are largely unaware of the exuberance of current Latin American art, as exemplified by the group exhibition of works by painters from the region: Santos Balmori, Jaime [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146824

  • Arte nacional: el dibujante Jorge Seoane
    Casterot y Arroyo, Enrique
    In this article about the Peruvian draftsman Jorge Seoane, the journalist Enrique Casterot y Arroyo describes the new function of modern art. In his opinion it is more than “a mere imitative instinct” that seeks to expose an “axiom of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146808

  • Arte peruano : el pintor Carlos Quizpez Asín
    López Merino, Clodoaldo
    The author of this article, Clodoaldo López Merino, refers to his earlier article about the Peruvian painter Carlos Quízpez Asín while the latter was still studying in Madrid, Spain. On that occasion the journalist quoted some of the artist’s [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146791

  • El arte peruano de vanguardia: la exposición de Goyburu
    Lora, Juan José, 1902-1961
    The author describes the painter Emilio Goyburu as a “born revolutionary” whose originality was immune to “any academic approach, old or new.” According to Juan José Lora, Goyburu’s work is a “cinematic spectacle of awareness,” in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146775

  • Artistas de vanguardia : César Moro
    Raygada, Carlos, 1898-1953
    This article by the critic Carlos Raygada is about the painter and poet César Moro, considered “one of the few exponents of modern art in Peru.” According to Raygada, Moro’s work is unknown because it “never appears in the kind of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146756

  • Concierto de figuras
    Peña Barrenechea, Ricardo, 1896 - 1939
    Well-known avant-garde author Ricardo Peña recounts the cosmopolitan education of Ricardo Grau, whom he describes as a “concertmaster of international figures.” In his paintings, he notes a tonal atmosphere that is austere and excessive. He [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146740

  • La exposición de Ricardo Grau
    Raygada, Carlos, 1898-1953
    After remarking on painter Ricardo Grau’s career in Europe, Carlos Raygada praises the maturity of Ricardo Grau’s work evident “in the sobriety of form and color essential to the work on exhibit.” The palette in Grau’s production, Raygada [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146716

  • A fin de cuentas, todo eso de la pintura racista y socialista de Méjico y Perú no es sino folclore
    More, Federico, 1889-1955
    The anonymous author of this article contrasts the favorable response on the part of Peruvian intellectuals and artists to the work of Spanish artist Victorio Macho and their response to María Izquierdo, considered “ambassador of a hypothetical [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146700

  • La exposición de María Izquierdo
    Pereira, Raúl María, 1916-2007
    In this text, critic Raúl Pereira asserts that the works by María Izquierdo on exhibit in Lima display “distinct personality, unquestionable artistic quality, and visual daring” as they delve into the motifs of Mexican folk art. The treatment [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146684

  • De arte : la exposición de María Izquierdo
    This is a review of the exhibition of work by María Izquierdo at the ICPN (Instituto Cultural Peruano Norteamericano) in Lima. “Tiziano” [Titian] describes her exhibition as “an interesting spiritual message from the Aztec nation and a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146668

  • Perspectivas de la pintura mejicana a través de una charla con María Izquierdo
    Izquierdo, María
    María Izquierdo is interviewed during her visit to Lima. The author of this article, known only by the pseudonym, “Tiziano” [Titian], considers the painter to be part of “the group of artists who are creating Mexican art based on an [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146652

  • Ricardo Grau ha demostrado con su exposición ser el mejor representante de la plástica en el Perú
    More, Carlos, 1904-
    In this text, Carlos More argues that there are two distinct modern art movements in Europe, one—started by Paul Gauguin—that is basically decorative in nature, and the other that goes so far as to see art as “a state of consciousness.” The [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146600

  • Lo que nos demuestra la Exposición de pintores chilenos : qué es lo que de ellos podemos aprender
    Grau, Ricardo
    Regarding the show of Chilean painting on exhibit in Lima, Ricardo Grau states that “it can be calamitous to have an artistic past like Peru’s” since it often serves as a pretext behind which to hide defects or weaknesses. Because no such [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146583

  • Ayer se inauguró una exposición de gran aliento
    Fernández Prada, Luis, 1917-1973
    In this text, Luis Fernández Prada asserts that Ricardo Grau’s show of painting is “worthy of note” in a prudish Peruvian art scene characterized by unremarkable shows. In his view, the show “constitutes a resounding reaction against [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1144189

  • Elogio en forma de fusta
    Miranda Nieto, Froylan
    In this article, Froylán Miranda Nieto argues that Ricardo Grau’s painting “contributes to Peru by wholeheartedly supporting avant-garde art.” He asserts that, because “neither Indianist nor Europeanizing,” the artist has a special place [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1144173