ICAA Researcher: Ricardo Kusunoki×
  • ¿Existe una pintura peruana?
    Acha, Juan, 1916-1995
    1958
    In this article signed “J. Nahuaca”—the anagram he used as an alias—Peruvian critic Juan Acha reflects on whether or not there is a painting tradition in Peru. He discusses the current state of painting on the occasion of the Premio [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1138182

  • ¿Hacia dónde va la pintura en el Perú¿? : Primer Salón de Pintura
    Valle, Alejandro Romualdo, 1926-2008
    1955
    The author identifies the principal characteristic of the works shown at the Primer Salón Annual de Pintura Peruana “as a strong and cohesive predilection for objectivity.” Among others, he highlights Alfredo Ruiz Rosas for his “successful [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1138900

  • "J. López Antay es más auténtico que muchos artistas cultos"
    Castrillón, Alfonso, 1935-
    1976
    Alfonso Castrillón defends the decision to recognize López Antay by granting him the Premio Nacional de Cultura [award], asserting that his work “is more authentic than the work of many so-called high artists, who have spent their whole lives [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1136092

  • "Julia Codesido y Sabogal son buenos pintores" : Aquilles Ralli cree, además, que muchos sólo buscan la fama por medio de la publicidad
    Ralli, Aquiles, 1925-
    1951
    Painter Aquiles Ralli rejects the comments made by Fernando de Szyszlo that became a national scandal: “there are no painters in Peru.” He juxtaposes the work of the “good artists,” those who diligently “work in silence and never advertise [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150882

  • "La importancia de nuestra generacíon es haber puesto al día al Perú artístico"
    1955
    This is an anonymous interview with Fernando de Szyszlo on his successful presentation at the III Salón Moncloa in Lima in 1955. The artist stated that it was the first artistic competition in which he had participated since 1951 due to his distrust [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137778

  • "Me parece que no hay otra pintura que la europea"
    Moll, Eduardo, 1929-
    1952
    In this interview, Fernando de Szyszlo states that the only painting tradition that exists is the European tradition, under the standards that emanated from Paris in the late 19th century, to which all other schools have been assimilated. Even “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 864956

  • "polémica Espacio"
    Pérez Barreto, Samuel (1921-2003)
    1951
    This text is Samuel Pérez Barreto’s response to the article by the Agrupación Espacio published as part of the debate that took shape around the polemic statements by Fernando de Szyszlo (“there are no painters in Peru”) published in La [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137916

  • "Qué arte abstracto ni que nada, el arte es esencialmente uno...": lo que debe hacer el pintor es "pintar", manifestó Sérvulo Gutiérrez
    Gutiérrez, Sérvulo
    1951
    In this text, Sérvulo Gutiérrez asserts that any classification that entails “dividing art” is conventional and falls into pigeonholing. It is misguided since it implies taking “a part for the whole.” Sérvulo Gutiérrez questions whether [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150851

  • [Letter] 1930 Julio 15, Miraflores [to] Antonino Espinosa y Saldaña
    Ibérico, Mariano, 1892-1974
    1930
    This letter by Mariano Ibérico was written at the request of painter Antonino Espinosa Saldaña. More specifically, Ibérico was asked to share his opinion on the polemic surrounding the course on Incan art given at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143618

  • [Letter] 1930 junio 10, Lima, Perú [to] Antonino Espinosa Saldaña
    Velarde, Héctor, 1898-1989
    1930
    In this letter, Héctor Velarde responds to the artist Antonino Espinosa Saldaña, regardin the debate provoked by the establishment of a course on “Inca Art” at the ENBA (Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes). The author considers that humor [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143602

  • [Letter] 1930 junio 25, Lima, [to] Antonino Espinosa Saldaña
    Sabogal, José, 1888-1956
    1930
    This is a letter that was sent by José Sabogal in response to his colleague, Antonino Espinosa Saldaña, who requested his opinion on the polemics surrounding the course on “Inca Art” that was being offered at the ENBA (Escuela Nacional de [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143586

  • [Los cuadros que explico en esta exposición...]
    Espinosa Saldaña, Antonino, 1888-1969
    1947
    This draft of a text by painter Antonino Espinosa Saldaña was for a presentation at an exhibition of his work that did not take place. In it he justifies the absence of titles or any references for the works, “because one should not impose a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143457

  • 12 meses de artes plásticas en Lima
    Ugarte Eléspuru, Juan Manuel, 1911-
    1955
    The author highlights here the intensity of activities on the arts scene of the Peruvian capital in 1954, both for the number and the importance of exhibitions, a fact which, in his judgment, demonstrates the ever-increasing affirmation of the visual [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137301

  • A fin de cuentas, todo eso de la pintura racista y socialista de Méjico y Perú no es sino folclore
    More, Federico, 1889-1955
    1944
    The anonymous author of this article contrasts the favorable response on the part of Peruvian intellectuals and artists to the work of Spanish artist Victorio Macho and their response to María Izquierdo, considered “ambassador of a hypothetical [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146700

  • A los pintores peruanos
    Guido, Angel Francisco
    1951
    Argentinean architect Ángel Guido—invitee to the I Congreso Internacional de Peruanistas—summarizes the genesis of modern painting in general terms: “Until Impressionism, toward reality. Afterward, toward ‘unreality.’ From there, the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150943

  • A propósito del curso de "arte incaico" en la Escuela de Bellas Artes
    Espinosa Saldaña, Antonino, 1888-1969
    1930
    The author, Antonino Espinosa Saldaña, proposes to replace the course name “Arte incaico” [Incan Art]—used by the ENBA beginning in 1930, with “Arqueología pre-incaica y su aplicación a las artes decorativas” [pre-Incan archeology and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143553

  • A propósito del curso de "arte incaico" en la Escuela de Bellas Artes
    Aguirre Morales, Augusto, 1888-1957
    1930
    The author, Augusto Aguirre Morales, questions the stance of painter Antonino Espinosa Saldaña, who does not believe Peruvian precolonial art is “art.” He challenges Espinosa’s premise that cultural differences among men are an obstacle to the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143570

  • A propósito del curso de arte incaico en la Escuela de Bellas Artes : carta abierta
    Espinosa Saldaña, Antonino, 1888-1969
    1930
    Painter Antonino Espinosa opens this letter questioning the pertinence of the “Arte incaico” [Incan Art] course at the ENBA—to be offered by writer Augusto Aguirre, author of the novel El pueblo del sol [The People of the Sun]—arguing that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143520

  • A propósito del curso de arte incaico en la Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes
    Aguirre Morales, Augusto, 1888-1957
    1930
    The author, Augusto Aguirre Morales, (who was selected by the ENBA to teach the controversial course) defends the existence of “Incan art,” using the examples conserved in museums and the testimonials of historians. He asserts that it was the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143537

  • Acotaciones : la influencia revolucionaria en nuestro arte : maestros nuevos y nacionalización artística / Juan F. Ballón
    Ballón, Juan Francisco
    1930
    In this article, Juan F. Ballón discusses the recent revolutionary process that began in Arequipa and went on to overthrow the dictator Augusto B. Leguía. In Ballón’s opinion, it was a “total” revolution that involved “all the events, all [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1151297

  • Actos y conferencias : el pintor D.A. Siqueiros disertó en la Escuela de Bellas Artes anoche
    1943
    This is a newspaper review of “El arte para la victoria y la pintura mexicana moderna,” the lecture given by David Alfaro Siqueiros at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes de Lima in March 1943. The painter and political activist informed his [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143245

  • Algo más sobre lo dicho respecto a la exposición de "arte abstracto"
    Hernández, Julio Alfonso
    1952
    On November 3, 1952 Julio Alfonso Hernández, the director of El Tiempo, the Chiclayo newspaper, replies to Alejandro Lora Risco’s defense of his exhibition of non-figurative drawings. Hernández believes it is a cliché to refer to art as “the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143668

  • Algo sobre el arte en el Perú
    Barreda y Laos, Enrique-Domingo, 1879-1944
    1939
    This text is an article written from Paris by painter Enrique Domingo Barreda, in which he attacks the prevailing indigenous art trend in Peruvian art. He states that “motivated by a ridiculous vanity, everyone in Peru paints natives and believes [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143340

  • Algunas notas sobre la pintura abstracta que se exhibe en la "Galería de Lima"
    1950
    This article, which is signed with the initials “F. F.,” reviews the exhibition of work by Enrique Kleiser, the Swiss-Peruvian artist, at the Galería de Lima. This was the first time that abstract—“better said, nonfigurative painting had [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150803

  • Arte : Dewasne
    1954
    This is an anonymous article about the French painter Jean Dewasne’s forthcoming visit to Lima in 1954, including a review of his career and his status as a key figure in the European art scene. He is described as being among those who were [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859465

  • Arte : Fernando de Szyszlo regresa de París
    1951
    This brief interview with Fernando de Szyszlo took place upon his return to Lima after having lived in Paris—which he calls “a fountain of life”—for a number of years. With enthusiasm, he describes the stimulating cultural milieu of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137933

  • Arte : la guerra de los pintores
    Pérez Barreto, Samuel (1921-2003)
    1951
    Samuel Pérez Barreto defends abstract art in the conclusion to his article published as part of the debate generated by the polemic statements of painter Fernando de Szyszlo (“there are no painters in Peru) published in La Prensa newspaper (Lima, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137856

  • Arte : las pinturas recientes de Fernando Szyszlo
    Pérez Barreto, Samuel (1921-2003)
    1951
    In this text, critic and librettist Samuel Pérez Barreto (S. P. B.) comments on the show of abstract paintings by fellow Peruvian Fernando de Szyszlo held at the Sociedad de Arquitectos del Perú in Lima. Pérez Barreto points out the deep [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150721

  • Arte nacional: el dibujante Jorge Seoane
    Casterot y Arroyo, Enrique
    1925
    In this article about the Peruvian draftsman Jorge Seoane, the journalist Enrique Casterot y Arroyo describes the new function of modern art. In his opinion it is more than “a mere imitative instinct” that seeks to expose an “axiom of the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146808

  • Arte peruano : el pintor Carlos Quizpez Asín
    López Merino, Clodoaldo
    1927
    The author of this article, Clodoaldo López Merino, refers to his earlier article about the Peruvian painter Carlos Quízpez Asín while the latter was still studying in Madrid, Spain. On that occasion the journalist quoted some of the artist’s [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146791

  • Artes plásticas
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1954
    According to the author, the works by Jean Dewasne shown at the Galería de Lima are representative of a kind of formalist art that is impressive because of its clarity and precision, over and above arguments that deceitfully attempt to place it [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859550

  • Artes Plásticas
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1955
    For the author, the circumstantial dominance of abstract painting at the III Salón Moncloa does not imply the true primacy of that trend within Peru’s painting [scene], although it does reveal how this trend has become (for young artists) an “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859662

  • Artes Plásticas
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1954
    This is the first of two articles by Sebastián Salazar Bondy, published under the pseudonym “Juan Eye,” on the Mexican art exhibition organized in Lima by La Crónica newspaper. The author believes the show is exceptional for its positive [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137991

  • Artes Plásticas
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1954
    Last of the two articles by Sebastián Salazar Bondy, published under the pseudyonym “Juan Eye,” on the Mexican art exhibition organized by La Crónica newspaper. For the author, if Mexican painting has “laid the foundations for its own school [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1138006

  • Artes Plásticas
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1955
    In his comments, Sebastián Salazar Bondy praises the early accomplishments of the painter Sigfrido Laske, especially given the local milieu, “where art training is not as comprehensive as desirable.” His evidence of the artist’s talent is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150342

  • Artes Plásticas
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1955
    Here, the writer sketches the artistic development reflected in the work of Alfredo Ruiz Rosas through the five years covered by the exhibition in the Peruvian capital. Bondy acknowledges the persistence of  “the same emotion” in the artist’s [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150376

  • Artes plásticas : pintores italianos contemporáneos
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1954
    In his review of the exhibition in Lima of works by contemporary Italian painters, Sebastián Salazar Bondy criticizes the abstract style as being “pure decoration.” In his opinion, Abstract painting cannot presume to be an important, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 857210

  • Artes plásticas : respuesta a Szyszlo
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1954
    In this response to Fernando de Szyszlo, well-known critic Sebastián Salazar Bondy points out how dynamic the Peruvian art scene is; against all odds, “there are people working tirelessly, with no pointless nostalgia as they undertake the creation [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1293656

  • Artes plásticas : sobre arte abstracto
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1954
    Sebastián Salazar Bondy replies emphatically to the article in which Luis Miró Quesada extolls the virtues of architects as champions of abstract art. Salazar Bondy suggests that painting becomes unnecessary when it eliminates any reference to “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 858965

  • Artes plásticas : sobre arte abstracto
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1954
    The author of this article, Sebastián Salazar Bondy, underscores his supposed agreement with Luis Miró Quesada as regards the “poor quality” of the exhibition of works by contemporary Italian painters at the Galería Lima, an event that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859038

  • Artes plásticas : sobre arte abstracto
    Salazar Bondy, Sebastián
    1954
    Continuing the debate on abstract art, Sebastián Salazar Bondy insists that painting should be “beautiful,” but should also be necessary (and not just “useful”). He states that beauty itself can only exist if it is inspired by “a real, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859095

  • Artistas de vanguardia : César Moro
    Raygada, Carlos, 1898-1953
    1925
    This article by the critic Carlos Raygada is about the painter and poet César Moro, considered “one of the few exponents of modern art in Peru.” According to Raygada, Moro’s work is unknown because it “never appears in the kind of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146756

  • Ayer se inauguró una exposición de gran aliento
    Fernández Prada, Luis, 1917-1973
    1937
    In this text, Luis Fernández Prada asserts that Ricardo Grau’s show of painting is “worthy of note” in a prudish Peruvian art scene characterized by unremarkable shows. In his view, the show “constitutes a resounding reaction against [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1144189

  • Balance de una polémica : cuatro preguntas fundamentales
    Rios, Juan, 1914-1991
    1951
    Juan Ríos asserts that Fernando de Szyszlo’s provocative statement “there are no painters in Peru” serves to legitimize public disdain for the country’s own culture. He condemns what he deems “the dangerous melodrama” that leads to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1137882

  • Bill Caro : pinturas
    Caro, Bill, 1949-
    1986
    In this brief review, Bill Caro discusses his own career, ranging from his 1972 exhibition (focused on Lima shantytowns) to his interest in light that became one of the key facets of his work in the 1980s. Caro states that “photographing is as [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1293457

  • Bill Caro 76
    Caro, Bill, 1949-
    1976
    This document is the catalogue to Cementerio de automóviles, an exhibition of work by hyperrealist painter Bill Caro held at Galería Enrique Camino Brent in Lima in late 1976. In a synopsis, architect Héctor Velarde states that beauty is “ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1293440

  • Breve diálogo con Jean Dewasne
    Szyszlo, Fernando de
    1954
    In this article, Fernando de Szyszlo interviews his colleague, the renowned French exponent of geometric abstraction, Jean Dewasne, who explains that he rejects the romantic concept of “inspiration” on the grounds that it is a “passive” [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 859117

  • Carácter y tendencias de la revolución vanguardista
    Ballón, Juan Francisco
    1929
    This article by Juan F. Ballón is about the avant-garde revolution that took place in the 1930s in Peru, which he believes was inspired “by childish and propitiatory feelings.” He claims that despite its apparent utilitarianism, this movement is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1151280

  • Carlos More, pintor
    Larrea, Juan
    1931
    Spanish poet Juan Larrea comments on the Carlos More exhibition in Lima in 1931 and states that, before More, the Peruvian mountain ranges were illustrated and interpreted by people “who could not see them without deforming them in an arbitrary and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150975

  • Carta a Enrique Domingo Barreda sobre el arte en el Perú
    Gallagher de Parks, Mercedes, 1883-
    1939
    In this document, the author, Mercedes Gallagher, had offered assessments similar to those of painter Enrique Domingo Barreda—that is, against indigenous art—except for the indigenous scenes painted by Francisco Laso. She asserts that “there [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1143356