ICAA Researcher: Josefina Manrique×
  • Gego y los nuevos ámbitos de reticulárea
    Guevara, Roberto, 1932-1998
    Roberto Guevara’s review of Gego’s Reticulárea (1969) was written a year after the work was created and originally installed. Guevara calls it the most complete installation in Venezuelan visual art up to that point (1970) because the open [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149339

  • "Reticulárea" de Gego
    Guevara, Roberto, 1932-1998
    Roberto Guevara reviewed Gego’s Reticulárea (1969) when it was first installed at the Museo de Bellas Artes [Museum of Fine Arts] in Caracas. He mentions the artist’s use of space within the Reticulárea, which acquires a new environmental [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149318

  • Los campos de fuerza en Gego : Gego´s force fields
    Brett, Guy
    According to English critic and curator Guy Brett, abstract works of art, whether systematic or informal in nature, can be seen as models of the universe. It is on this premise that he studies Gego’s work. Brett maintains that the work of many [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148309

  • Gego : arquitecto
    Gómez, Hannia
    Hannia Gómez provides an overview of Gego’s architectural/engineering training and how it influenced her work. The former outlines the latter’s academic education and describes the didactic style of most fashionable architectural schools in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148288

  • On not being venezuelan
    Feldman, Hannah
    Art historian Hanna Feldman takes issue with critics who approach Gego’s art from a nationalist (Venezuelan) perspective, which she believes limits its scope and social importance. Feldman asserts that contemporary experiences of migration, exile, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148266

  • De la tela de araña
    Bois, Yve-Alain
    French critic and art historian Yve-Alain Bois bases his analysis of Gego’s work, particularly Reticulárea (1969), on poetic texts from ancient Greece, as well as the philosophy of Lucretiusand of Karl Marx. In his analysis, Bois, who taught in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148230

  • Gego : arte, diseño y el campo poético
    Brett, Guy
    In this essay, English critic and curator Guy Brett examines precisely what elements are responsible for making Gego’s creations works of art rather than works of design or visual investigation, both ideas that are closely bound to her work. Brett [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148211

  • John Cage : music of changes
    Dietrich, Malow
    This document shows a fragment of the score, Music of Changes, by the American composer John Cage, to be presented as an accompaniment to Gego’s environmental work, Reticulárea, in the exhibition Spielraum-Raumspiele [Play Room/Play Space] at the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148193

  • La reticulárea explota en el papel
    Comerlati, Mara, 1952-
    Venezuelan journalist Mara Comerlati interviews Gego about the exhibition of watercolors that will be held at the Galería de Arte Nacional (GAN) in Caracas in August 1982. She also provides information about the most important moments in Gego’s [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148172

  • Paisajes reticuláreas y un homenaje a París
    Delgado, Lenelina
    Venezuelan journalist Lenelina Delgado reports on an exhibition of watercolors by Gego that will be held at the Galería de Arte Nacional (GAN) in Caracas. Delgado provides an overview of Gego’s career, describing her as the most coherent artist [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148126

  • Rayado sobre el Techo de la Ballena: letras, humor, pintura
    This document is the first issue of the magazine Rayado sobre el Techo published by the visual artists and writers who formed part of El Techo de la Ballena, a group active in Caracas from 1961 to 1968. This issue contains texts crucial to the group [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1142155

  • Interview with Carlos Zerpa
    Stein, Axel
    The cultural agent Axel Stein interviews Carlos Zerpa in the catalogue for the exhibition Three Venezuelans in Two Dimensions. Miguel von Dangel. Ernesto León. Carlos Zerpa (New York: Americas Society Art Gallery, 1988). Zerpa discusses his training [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102380

  • Interview with Ernesto León
    Stein, Axel; León, Ernesto, 1956-
    Axel Stein, the well-known cultural agent, interviews Ernesto León (b. 1956) for an article in the catalogue for the exhibition Three Venezuelans in Two Dimensions. Miguel von Dangel. Ernesto León. Carlos Zerpa (New York: Americas Society Art [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102364

  • Interview with Miguel Von Dangel
    Stein, Axel
    Axel Stein, the cultural agent, interviews Miguel von Dangel for an article in the catalogue for the exhibition Three Venezuelans in Two Dimensions. Miguel von Dangel. Ernesto León. Carlos Zerpa (New York: Americas Society Art Gallery, 1988). Von [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102348

  • Yo Mario Abreu digo que sólo lo americano nos salvará
    Manrique, Gustavo
    Journalist Gustavo Manrique interviews Mario Abreu for this exhibition Objetos Mágicos [Magic Objects] (Caracas: Museo de Bellas Artes, 1965). The Venezuelan artist defines himself as an American painter who has used elements of Santeria in his [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102189

  • Demonología y arte
    Von Dangel, Miguel, 1946-
    In this [1986] article, Miguel von Dangel contemplates contemporary Venezuelan art, as he sees it in the evolution of Western art. He believes that there has been a certain arbitrariness and exhibitionism in contemporary art practices in Venezuela in [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102173

  • Acotaciones al tema de la crueldad en el arte : en memoria de Pedro Américo- Brasil 1843 - 1905-pintor de tiradentes descuartizado
    Von Dangel, Miguel, 1946-
    Miguel von Dangel begins this article with a story about the death of a horse that was used in [medical] experiments. His wish that the horse be given a compassionate death was stymied, and instead, the horse ended up dying slowly, in painful agony, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102157

  • Tres acepciones de iconografía virtual
    Von Dangel, Miguel, 1946-
    In this article Miguel von Dangel describes the three classifications he uses for images and art. Inspired by Umberto Eco’s semiological ideas, the first of these explains the depiction of horror and monstrous ideas in art as a way to reveal “the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102141

  • Mi obra ha tenido que luchar contra muchos prejuicios : un premio nacional visto con la luz de Petare
    Monsalve, Yasmin
    In this interview with Miguel von Dangel by Yasmín Monsalve, the artist shares his reaction to having been awarded the Premio Nacional de Artes Plásticas de Venezuela in 1991. Von Dangel recounts how he got his start in the arts and explains his [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102125

  • Miguel Von Dangel
    Calzadilla, Juan, 1931
    Juan Calzadilla wrote this critical text as a preface to the catalogue for Miguel von Dangel’s exhibition Sacrifixiones (1969). The essay starts with comments on the artist’s beginnings in taxidermy. Calzadilla explains how, during his time at [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102109

  • Mario Abreu : El fiero (y dulce) instinto terrestre
    Balza, José
    This text by writer and critic José Balza is the introduction to Las Puertas del reino, an exhibition of work by Venezuelan artist Mario Abreu. In it, Balza asserts that there is more to Abreu than his public image as a medium of the occult. His [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1102047

  • Lo trascendente de lo cotidiano : conversación con Miguel Von Dangel
    Blyde, Aurora
    This interview with Miguel von Dangel, conducted by Aurora Blyde, examines the artist’s career from its beginnings to date, making reference to his chief exhibitions and his most important works. Von Dangel believes it is an artist’s duty to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1101950

  • Carta de presentación
    Abreu, Mario, 1919-1993
    Mario Abreu wrote this introduction for his exhibition Objetos Mágicos, held at the Museo de Bellas Artes de Caracas in 1965. The Venezuelan visual artist maintains that it is through artistic arrangement and contradictions that he continues “to [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1101698

  • San Romano
    Von Dangel, Miguel, 1946-
    This is a selection of notes taken from the diary of the German-born Venezuelan visual artist Miguel von Dangel and published in the catalogue for the exhibition La Batalla de San Romano, in which the artist presents his version of the homonymous [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1101572

  • Tercer manifiesto : ¿Por qué la ballena?
    González León, Adriano
    In the “Tercer Manifiesto” produced by El Techo de la Ballena (Caracas, 1961–68), Adriano González León explains the group’s activities and the bond they share, under the pretext of defending the group’s name, which had raised some [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1097576

  • Los tumorales I y II
    Calzadilla, Juan, 1931; Contramaestre, Carlos
    This introduction to Carlos Contramaestre’s exhibition Los Tumorales is divided into two parts: the first was written by the artist himself and the second by Juan Calzadilla (both were members of the El Techo de la Ballena group). In his section, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1097559

  • Homenaje a la necrofilia
    González León, Adriano
    In this essay, writer Adriano González León presents the vision of love, death, and necrophilia in the show of work by Carlos Contramaestre entitled Homenaje a la Necrofilia. González León conceives of necrophilia as & [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1097543

  • Prólogo : El Techo de la Ballena
    Rama, Ángel, 1926-1983
    In this text, Ángel Rama analyzes and assesses the importance of El Techo de la Ballena, an avant-garde group that emerged in Venezuela in the early sixties. He reproduces a selection of what he considers the group’s most important writings, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1097527

  • El artista debe superar las limitaciones de las ideologías : Jacobo Borges en Nueva York
    Florez, Armando J.
    In this interview with Armando J. Florez, Jacobo Borges states that an artist should have a global perspective when it comes to politics and mankind’s real values, and should be free of any limitations imposed by ideologies. The painter believes [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1065435

  • La pintura, una cuestión existencial para Borges
    Schmied, Wieland, 1929-2014
    German critic Wieland Schmied establishes that Jacobo Borges has incorporated certain influences from the European tradition into his work through a difficult process. From his perspective as a historian, Schmied explains that the Venezuelan painter [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1064574

  • Somos una ficción
    Delgado, Lenelina
    Venezuelan journalist Lenelina Delgado interviews Jacobo Borges on his show, La Comunión. The artist explains that the works in La Comunión were conceptually based on a photograph. He states that by means of the ritual nature of the works in the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1063831

  • Jacobo Borges en México
    Taracena, Berta
    Historian Berta Taracena discusses the trajectory of painter Jacobo Borges in relation to the works presented in the show Jacobo Borges: magia de un realismo crítico,held in Mexico City. She explains that Borges’s early work makes use of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1063795

  • Entre la acción colectiva y la búsqueda individual : Jacobo Borges
    Colin, José Luis, 1944-
    The art critic José Luis Colin interviews Jacobo Borges on the occasion of the latter’s exhibition at the Galería Arvil in Mexico City. Colin notes this Venezuelan painter’s fascination with human rituals and gestures, timelessness, and the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1063769

  • Jacobo Borges : La pasión de la identidad
    Pérez Luna, Elisabeth
    Journalist Elisabeth Pérez Luna describes the audiovisual show produced at Parque Central in the framework of the III Conferencia del Mar and interviews its creator and producer, Jacobo Borges. Pérez Luna explains that the show entailed a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1063714

  • Para la restitución del magma
    El Techo de la Ballena
    Written by the members of the group El Techo de la Ballena and published in the first issue of their magazine Rayado sobre el Techo, this essay expresses their desire to return to matter—that is, to “the magma”—in an original act that frees [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060710

  • [Hasta ahora lo que entre nosotros se había llamado …]
    Calzadilla, Juan, 1931
    The critic Juan Calzadilla wrote this prologue for Borges. Las Jugadoras, the exhibition at the Galería del Techo [de la Ballena]. Calzadilla describes Jacobo Borges’ work as being representative of a new kind of painting that—while not entirely [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060684

  • Jacobo Borges : La pintura como hermenéutica de la realidad
    Wilson, Adolfo
    In this review, Adolfo Wilson discusses the work produced by Jacobo Borges over the course of two decades, from the 1960s to the 1980s. Wilson reviews the visual artist’s most significant work from that period, analyzing his production as though it [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060655

  • Jacobo Borges's creation of potential space = Jacobo Borges e la creazione dello spazio potenziale
    Kuspit, Donald B.
    The North American professor Donald Kuspit discusses the work of Jacobo Borges in terms of its creation of “potential spaces,” referring to the concept used in the jargon of psychoanalysis. In a potential space—defined as an area midway between [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060608

  • Jacobo Borges en la ciudad ritual
    Ramos, María Elena, 1947-
    In this article María Elena Ramos reviews the La Comunión series by the Venezuelan painter Jacobo Borges, which she finds to be a synthesis of the main ideas he had explored in earlier works, such as El Espectáculo (Ha comenzado el espectáculo, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060525

  • [Un día el poeta sentó la belleza en sus rodillas … ]
    Guevara, Roberto, 1932-1998
    This essay by the critic and curator Roberto Guevara appeared in the catalogue for the exhibition 10 pintores venezolanos de la nueva figuración. In his opinion, figuration has gone down the same cyclical and unstable path as all the other [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060477

  • Reunión con un círculo rojo : a Borges
    Cortázar, Julio
    This brief work of fiction by Julio Cortázar, which is dedicated to the Venezuelan painter Jacobo Borges, was inspired by the painting Reunión con un círculo rojo. The Argentinean writer’s main character in the story, Jacobo,  steps into a [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060457

  • [Una exposición de obras de Jacobo Borges…]
    Erminy, Perán
    The critic and historian Perán Erminy evaluates the work presented by the painter Jacobo Borges at the exhibition Jacobo Borges. Dibujos recientes,hosted by the ¡Viva México! gallery in Caracas. Erminy claims that the Venezuelan artist’s goal is [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060424

  • Presentación
    Calzadilla, Juan, 1931
    This text by critic Juan Calzadilla is the introduction to the catalogue for Magia de un realismo crítico, an exhibition of work by Jacobo Borges organized by the Galería de Arte Nacional in 1976. Calzadilla asserts that, of all Venezuelan artists [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060392

  • Jacobo Borges
    Palacios, Inocente
    In this prologue to an exhibition held at Estudio Actual in 1972, critic Inocente Palacios analyzes Jacobo Borges’s pictorial work, which he considers socially committed art. He asserts that the decline of the representation of the human figure, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060361

  • Investigación de las basuras
    González León, Adriano
    The writer Adriano González León contributes the prologue to the anthology of poems by Caupolicán Ovalles—¿Duerme usted, señor presidente?—in the homonymous book produced by El Techo de la Ballena artists’ group. González León claims [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060324

  • [Hay ciertos rostros de la ciudad...]
    Pérez Perdomo, Francisco
    Francisco Pérez Perdomo wrote the prologue for Asfalto-Infierno, the book by Adriano González Léon (text) and Daniel González (photographs), published by El Techo de la Ballena (Caracas, 1961–68), the group to which these artists belonged. Pé [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060288

  • Rayado sobre el techo: Cambiar la vida, transformar la sociedad.
    El Techo de la Ballena
    This is the second issue of Rayado sobre el Techo, the magazine published by the visual artists and writers in the group El Techo de la Ballena (Caracas, 1961–68). Inspired by the slogan “Change life, transform society,” this issue included the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060254

  • Aberraciones eróticas difunde panfleto pornográfico hecho en la universidad : se exige al rector que explique quien autorizó la impresión
    This critique is about the publication of a pamphlet printed at the UCV (Universidad Central de Venezuela), whose content dealt with “aberrant deviations of eroticism.” The anonymous article states that the pamphlet caused outrage toward the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060229

  • Las "Instituciones de cultura" nos roban el oxígeno, afirman
    In this article the members of the group El Techo de la Ballena (Caracas, 1961–68) explain what prompted them to create the group. Keeping the works of the Surrealist and Dadaist movements in mind, but with no intention of reviving them, the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1060199

  • [Establecer una frontera entre lo cursi y lo pavoso...]
    Techo de la Ballena (1961-1969)
    In this text, the members of El Techo de la Ballena, a group that emerged in the sixties, in Caracas, delineated the differences between categories such as “tacky,” “unfortunate,” and “ridiculous” in the exhibition, Homenaje a la cursiler [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1059586