ICAA Researcher: Francisco Reyes Palma : CURARE A. C.×
  • Estatutos del Taller de Gráfica Popular
    The Estatutos [Statutes] of the Taller de Gráfica Popular (TGP) [Peoples’ Graphics Workshop] were written a year after it was founded. They describe it as a workshop devoted to the art of agitation and propaganda, united by a commitment to two [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 826866

  • Arte y Revolución
    Cardoza y Aragón, Luis
    According to Luis Cardoza y Aragón, poetry enjoyed greater development in Mexico than the visual arts because the former was situated on the margins of the national-pictorial movement. The proof of this can be found in the confluence of the Mexican [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822836

  • Fotomontaje
    Alvarez Bravo, Lola
    This is the cover for the magazine Frente a Frente [Front to Front] (Mexico City January 1938) published by the LEAR (Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists]; it included a photomontage by Lola Á [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822833

  • Llamadas. Sinfonía proletaria
    Chávez, Carlos, 1899-1978
    This document contains a composition for piano and chorus from the original score of Llamadas. Sinfonía proletaria [The Call. Proletariat Symphony], composed by Carlos Chávez and edited by the cultural officials of Mexico. It includes 17 [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822830

  • Puntos escogidos por Luis Cardoza y Aragón para la discusión que se celebrará el día 3 de noviembre, a las 20 horas en nuestro local
    Cardoza y Aragón, Luis
    The fourteen tenets upheld by Luis Cardoza y Aragón—those that were to be debated among the members of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists]—proposed an art movement free of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822827

  • Maestro tú estás solo contra: …
    Taller de Gráfica Popular (Mexico City, Mexico)
    This document is a flyer produced by the Taller de Gráfica Popular (TGP) [The People’s Graphic Workshop], with an engraving by Leopoldo Méndez that denounces the isolation and lack of teachers due to the reactionary wave of violence against them [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822763

  • [Hoja Popular Ilustrada]
    The Taller de Gráfica Popular (TGP) [People’s Graphic Workshop] explained its working plan for graphic propaganda in a flyer that specified the following: it could be incorporated into wall newspapers, mailed as if it were postal correspondence, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822757

  • Corrido de Don Chapulín
    This text contains the lyrics to the song, Corrido de Don Chapulín, [Song of Don Chapulín] that was illustrated by four graphic options so that the reader could select his or her preference. The corrido [Mexican folk song] first defines the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822754

  • En nombre de cristo…han asesinado a más de 200 maestros : 7 litografías de Leopoldo Méndez. Centro productor de Artes Plásticas del Departamento de Bellas Artes
    Méndez, Leopoldo
    Leopoldo Méndez made seven lithographs to commemorate the systematic murder of teachers that took place between 1936 and 1938. There was a large print run of these lithographs done in a booklet printed on cheap paper. Following each succinct [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822751

  • Uno de los otros. Uno de los nuestros
    Guerrero Galván, Jesús
    The article in which Choque [Shock] stated its basic principles included a promise to use more graphics to promote the visual arts. However, the four large pages in the first issue contained a mere couple of boxes with a drawing by Jesús [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822748

  • Principios declarativos de la Lucha Intelectual Proletaria (LIP)
    In Mexico, the Lucha Intelectual Proletaria (LIP) [Intellectual Proletarian Struggle] establishes four principles. These are the same principles that required this group of artists and intellectuals, who were ready to serve the proletariat with their [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822480

  • Choque
    Reyes Pérez, Roberto
    Roberto Reyes Pérez, a member of the editorial board of Choque [Shock], was responsible for the editorial policy of the fortnightly journal of the Alianza de Trabajadores del Arte Plásticas (ATAP) [Visual Art Workers Alliance], which was described [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822477

  • Editorial. Educación socialista
    Golpe, the journal of the Federación de Escritores y Artistas Proletarios (FEAP) [Federation of Proletarian Writers and Artists] published an editorial in which members of the Federation expressed their opinions on the issue of socialist education. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822474

  • El arte al servicio del proletariado
    Siqueiros, David Alfaro
    Given the circumstances of the time, David Alfaro Siqueiros advocated that art should be transparent and dedicated to the struggle; it should be a tool for propaganda that was also open to technical innovation. In his opinion, pure art should wait [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822471

  • Declaración
    In its official publication Llamada [The Call], the Lucha Intelectual Proletaria (LIP) [Intellectual Proletarian Struggle] declares that Mexican intellectuals who are members of this group should make their work serve the proletariat in its war on [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822468

  • Arte puro, puros maricones
    Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957
    Choque [Shock], the publication of the Alianza de Trabajadores del Arte Plásticas (ATAP) [Alliance of Visual Arts Workers] sets forth the opinions of Diego Rivera regarding art for art’s sake, which he considers “sandez sentimental [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 822465

  • Sobre andamios interiores
    Borges, Jorge Luis, 1899-1986
    In this commentary by Jorge Luis Borges on the book of poems by Manuel Maples Arce, Andamios interiors [Interior Scaffolding], published in the latter half of 1922, the Argentine writer contrasts his urban vision of poor neighborhoods against the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 809622

  • Actual No 3. Hoja de vanguardia. Proyecto Internacional de Nueva Estética
    Maples Arce, Manuel, 1900-
    While the first issue of Actual contained a directory of avant-garde artists, this third issue held an index of avant-garde books and magazines. Listings include: La vie des lettres, a French magazine begun in 1913 and headed by Nicolas Beauduin; an [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 809167

  • Picasso : 4
    Renau Montoro, José
    The statements by Pablo Picasso are a highlight of the catalog assembled for a late exhibition held in Picasso’s honor in Mexico City in 1944. The texts for the catalog were assigned to four other artists: Carlos Mérida, the painter and muralist [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 804000

  • El estridentismo y la teoría abstraccionista
    Vela, Arqueles
    After denying the existence of “Estridentista art,” the writer Arqueles Vela indicates his group’s affinity with Abstractionism and with “pure art,” which in his view was considered a condensed expression of modern life, a way of overcoming [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 803840

  • Sociedad de Arte Moderno
    The Sociedad de Arte Moderno [Society of Modern Art] names a long list of “associates,” including its president, Jorge Enciso, the avant-garde painter who subsequently devoted himself to historical and anthropological research and to public [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 799735

  • Fotografías de Amero
    Cardoza y Aragón, Luis
    The Guatemalan writer established in Mexico, Luis Cardoza y Aragón, focuses Emilio Amero’s work from a lyrical perspective. In fact, Amero weaves the “snapshot of the word” (poetry), with the photogram (a short space of light and emotion). To [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 794700

  • Clérigo-Stalinismo Versus Cultura y Verdad
    Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957
    Diego Rivera denounces the “sordid sabotage” that the French poet André Breton has been subjected to at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México: as an action driven by a network of intellectuals controlled by the Soviet [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 794683

  • Misiva autógrafa de León Trotsky a Diego Rivera
    While living in exile on the Turkish island of Büyükada, Leon Trotsky writes to Diego Rivera, “a close friend of the left wing opposition,” in Mexico. In his letter, the Russian revolutionary recalls his first exposure to reproductions of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 794670

  • Más letras antes del pan : Los clérigos stalinistas gepeuizantes y el caso del gran poeta André Bretón
    Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957
    Meant as a wakeup call for the Lázaro Cárdenas’ administration (1934-40) in Mexico, Diego Rivera launches an attack against the police intelligentsia, including some agents of the Soviet GPU that, in his judgment, had infiltrated [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 794653

  • El museo de arte moderno americano
    Based on a negative report regarding the state of collections of academic art kept in the galleries of the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, the journal Forma is adamant in promoting the establishment of a “Museo de arte moderno americano” [ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 794640

  • Exilios y descentramientos
    Reyes Palma, Francisco
    The art historian Francisco Reyes Palma briefly describes the construction of an image of 1930s Mexico in accordance with the aesthetic/political strategy of Surrealism. He starts by talking about the relationships that arose among the painter Diego [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 794626

  • Fotografía y cinematógrafo
    Mérida, Carlos, 1891-1984
    In spite of showing his work in solo photography exhibitions, Carlos Mérida’s favorite subject to write about was Emilio Amero’s cinematographic work. Specifically, he focuses on 3-3-3 shorts, whose balance surprises him, since the medium works [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 794617

  • Tres llamamientos de orientación actual a los pintores y escultores de la nueva generación americana
    Siqueiros, David Alfaro
    Based in a progressive perspective, in a future with an “increasingly superior” art, the declaration that David Alfaro Siqueiros wrote in Barcelona sought to facilitate the incorporation of certain elements of the American continent into avant- [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 794607

  • Raíces políticas y motivos personales de la controversia Siqueiros- Rivera. Stalinismo vs. Bolchevismo leninista
    In this document, Diego Rivera discusses the details of his conflict with David Alfaro Siqueiros; that is, the international campaign orchestrated by the Stalinist leadership to discredit Rivera for his Trotskyite militancy and for his financial [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 792906

  • Un precursor del movimiento de Arte Mexicano : el grabador Posadas
    Charlot, Jean
    After reviewing the rich array of techniques used by the printmaker José Guadalupe Posada, Jean Charlot attributes to this producer of “anonymous work” the nature of creator and turns him into a representative of national Indo-American art. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779806

  • Servir la revolución, servirse de la revolución
    Cardoza y Aragón, Luis
    Supported by a quote from André Breton —who himself quoted Karl Marx—, Luis Cardoza y Aragón again refutes the exploitation of art by revolutionaries. The tenets that composed the introductory document of the Congreso de Escritores [Writers’ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779791

  • Arte y revolución: una polémica en la LEAR
    Cardoza y Aragón, Luis
    In the 1990s, the magazine Memoria reported on a controversy that led to the great 1936 exhibition organized by the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists]. The article explains that the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779783

  • Balance de la LEAR
    This article is a self-critique of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists], which also touches on the group’s diversity. It mentions the disorder created by incorporating other [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779409

  • Resumen del Congreso Nacional de Escritores y Artistas convocado por la LEAR
    This extensive document covers the various phases of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios [LEAR, League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists] and the international causes the organization supported. Despite being billed as a “Congreso [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779402

  • La cooperación de los intelectuales : Discurso pronunciado ante el congreso de Escritores y Artistas en la sesión de apertura en el Teatro de “Bellas Artes” el 17 de enero de 1937
    Laborde, Hernán
    Hernán Laborde establishes the defense of human rights and peace as a point of agreement among all the intellectual groups gathered there. With regard to art, he begins with a premise of Joseph Stalin according to which writers, and by extension [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779395

  • Juan Marinello : lo que pensamos de él
    Abreu Gómez, Ermilo, 1894-1971
    Ermilo Abreu Gómez interviews Cuban Juan Marinello for Frente a Frente [Face to Face], the journal of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists]. In the interview, the key issue of artistic [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779388

  • La exposición de artes plásticas de la LEAR
    Vela, Arqueles
    It had been a month since El Machete reported the end of a dispute between Luis Cardoza y Aragón and the defenders of the single cultural front promoted in the magazine Frente a Frente [Face to Face]. In this article, the Estridentista and active [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779378

  • Qué debemos al cubismo : La negación del arte burgués
    This analysis of the meaning of the Cubist rupture—that was published in Frente a Frente [Face to Face], the journal of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists]—considers the fact that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779370

  • Nosotros los poetas y artistas futuristas de Italia (la carroña intelectual al servicio del papa y de Mussolini – aclaramos los artistas revolucionarios)
    Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso, 1876-1944
    In 1936 the publishers of Frente a Frente [Face to Face], the journal of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists] published a belated futuristic manifesto by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti on [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779364

  • “El Machete” ante la polémica de Cardoza y Aragón y Cabada
    The dispute begun by Luis Cardoza y Aragón against the frente único [single front] policy of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists] culminated with this declaration in El Machete. The [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779297

  • Las sugestiones de Cardoza
    Cabada, Juan de la
    In this document Juan de la Cabada responds to Luis Cardoza y Aragón’s criticism of the first art exhibition organized by the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists]. At the same time de [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779292

  • Exposición de pintura organizada por la LEAR : Divagaciones y pretextos
    Cardoza y Aragón, Luis
    “I believe that the LEAR is on the completely wrong path . . . , it is the only organization in Mexico that is against art.” With these terms, the writer Luis Cardoza y Aragón stated his disagreement with the selection of works presented by the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 779286

  • Diego Rivera pintor de cámara del gobierno de México
    Siqueiros, David Alfaro
    David Alfaro Siqueiros attacks the implacable enemy of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists], the Trotskyite Diego Rivera, “leader and supporter of the Fourth International in Mexico [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774385

  • El plastodonte blanco o Palacio de Bellas Artes
    Zepeda, Arturo
    The National Theater was a major architectural project during the Porfirio Díaz administration, but it was never completed due to the outbreak of the revolution in 1910. Later worked on by several post-revolutionary governments, it was transformed [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774376

  • Síntesis de los principios declarativos de la LEAR
    The Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists] disseminated its ideology in the first edition of the magazine Frente a Frente [Front to Front], nearly one year after the founding of this [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774370

  • [Calaveras del Mausoleo nacional]
    This print by Leopoldo Méndez was used for the cover of the first issue of Frente a Frente [Face to Face], in which the inauguration of the Palacio de Bellas Artes was satirized as an act of cultural exclusion. At the bottom of the page, a policeman [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774365

  • No hay mas ruta que la nuestra : Importancia nacional e internacional de la pintura mexicana moderna
    Siqueiros, David Alfaro
    This is a collection of articles by David Alfaro Siqueiros in which he restates the principles of an art about war, linking it to the great artistic traditions expressed in the work of artists such as Dr. Atl, José Clemente Orozco, and Diego Rivera [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774358

  • El triunfo de la muerte
    Fernández Ledesma, Gabriel
    In this article, the painter Gabriel Fernández Ledesma traces the history of European funerary traditions during the colonial period. He explores “The Triumph of Death” and its portrayal on playing cards and in the theater, discussing its [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774307

  • André Breton
    Barreda, Octavio G.
    Letras de México, the magazine directed by Octavio G. Barreda, devoted its May 1938 issue to André Breton and Surrealism. It published several of his essays: an excerpt of “Les vases communicantes” [Communicating Vessels], “Le merveilleux [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 774259