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  • Reticulárea : module and version
    Rangel, Gabriela, 1963-
    This essay on Gego’s work, Reticulárea (1969) by Gabriela Rangel was published in 2006 to mark the fortieth anniversary of the visual arts program at the Americas Society (New York). This is the institution previously known as the Center for Inter [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159944

  • Gego and the webs of the postnation
    Rangel, Gabriela, 1963-
    This is an essay on Gego’s work written by Gabriela Rangel. It emphasizes the international acclaim the artist’s work generated starting in the first decade of the twenty-first century. The recent success is proven by the international [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159928

  • Para leer a Gego entre la línea = Reading Gego between the line
    Ramírez, Mari Carmen, 1955-
    This essay was written by Mari Carmen Ramírez, director of the department of Latin American art at The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, on Gego and presented (as a lecture) at the symposium, Questioning the Line: Gego in Context / Cuestionando la Lí [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159880

  • Entre la transparencia y lo invisible : la dimensión intermedia de Gego = Between transparency and the invisible : Gego's in between dimensions
    Ramírez, Mari Carmen, 1955-
    Mari Carmen Ramírez investigates the theme of “transparency” as a basic element of Gego’s drawings. Ramírez asserts that both Gego’s drawings and her constructions are expressed in a perceptibly ambiguous plane. In fact, they result from [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159864

  • Five unique artists in one exhibition
    Ponte, Ray
    The journalist Raquel Chonchol wrote under the pseudonym, “Ray Ponte,” for The Daily Journal, a Venezuelan English language newspaper. She reviewed this exhibition on the occasion of a visit by some high-profile members of The International [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159848

  • Gego, retículas residuales y modernidad involuntaria : la sombra, los rastros y el sitio = Gego, residual reticulareas and involuntary modernism : shadow, traces, and site
    Pérez Oramas, Luis, 1960-
    Luis Enrique Pérez Oramas analyzes Gego’s work in light of what he considers her contribution to the history of visual art. The critic considers [the source of] that contribution to be the different artistic milieu in which her artistic life [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159784

  • Abstraction, organism, apparatus : notes of the penetrable structure in the work of Lygia Clark, Gego, and Mira Schendel
    Pérez Oramas, Luis, 1960-
    In this essay, Luis Enrique Pérez Oramas discusses the typology of Latin American modern art that is designed “to be penetrated” by the viewer, based on an analysis of major works by three Latin American women artists: Brazilians Lygia Clark and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159688

  • Gego
    Parreño, José María
    Under the subtitle “Gego,” José María Parreño devotes this section of his essay “De una diversa fragilidad” [From a Diverse Fragility] to Gego, which he wrote for the exhibition Frágil [Fragile] (Segovia, Spain: Museo de Arte Contemporá [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159672

  • Catalyst for the Latin Americans
    O'Connor, John J.
    John O’Connor reviews the exhibition Latin America: New Paintings and Sculpture. Juan Downey, Agustín Fernández, Gego, and Gabriel Morera (New York: Art Gallery of the Center for Inter-American Relations, 1969). O’Connor acknowledges the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159626

  • Descubrir a Gego
    Lowry, Glenn D.
    In this essay, Glenn D. Lowry discusses his reaction when in Venezuela in 2000, he discovered Gego’s work, having only ever seen a few of her sculptures and prints. He claims that he would have liked to meet her, and lists the questions he would [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159482

  • Assembling Collective Reason : Gego’s structure as public space
    Ledezma, Juan
    Juan Ledezma compares the aesthetic strategies that Gego used to create shape in space.  Leaning on theories suggested by Jürgen Habermas, who classifies modern forms of reason, Ledezma analyzes the “formative logic” of Gego’s constructions [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159466

  • 4 Latin American cosmopolitan stylists
    Kramer, Hilton
    Hilton Kramer reviews the exhibition Latin America: New Paintings and Sculpture. Juan Downey, Agustín Fernández, Gego, and Gabriel Morera, presented at the Art Gallery of the Center for Inter-American Relations in 1969. Kramer mentions the fact [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159450

  • Introduction = Introducción
    Manrique, Josefina; Huizi, María Elena
    María Elena Huizi and Josefina Manrique wrote the introduction to the book Sabiduras y otros textos de Gego / Sabiduras and Other Texts by Gego that includes a selection of the artist’s previously unpublished manuscripts. The two [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159417

  • Gego : Caracas 2000 or the side effects of modernity
    González, Julieta, 1968-
    Julieta González ponders the urban and artistic context of Gego’s work. According to the former, the latter’s work could be interpreted as a sort of map of the dissolution of the modernist canon, in both formal and self-referential terms. The [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159304

  • No space
    This prose poem is a brief reflection on “space” and “no space” that Gego wrote in English while she was in California in 1966. She starts by considering a wall and its holes from which to let her vision and imagination take off for the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159188

  • The vitality of non-orthogonal abstraction
    Christofori, Ralf
    In this essay, curator Ralf Christofori uses the notion of “non-orthogonal abstraction” to compare the work of different artists, among them Gego, a Venezuelan artist of German origin; Dutch artist Lara Schnitger; Brazilian artist Ernesto Neto; [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159090

  • Gego
    Constantini, Mildred; Larsen, Jack Lenor
    This brief text was published in the first edition of the book Beyond Craft: The Art of Fabric (1973), written by two experts in textile art, weaving technique, and design: American curator Mildred Constantine, and American textile businessman and [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159073

  • [Letter] 1974, May 7, Syracuse, New York [to] Gego
    Catlin, Stanton L. (Stanton Loomis)
    In this letter written in English and dated May 7, 1974, Stanton L. Catlin informs Gego that he has been named a professor of art, and director of the galleries at Syracuse University, New York. He states that he will also be collaborating with the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1159018

  • Introduction
    Bloch, E. Maurice
    This note within the catalogue to the exhibition, Tamarind: A Renaissance of Lithography (Shasta College Art Department, Reading, California, 1971), indicates Gego’s participation in that event. In addition to some information about Gego’ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1158966

  • Gego : outside in, inside out
    Carvajal, Rina
    In this essay, Venezuelan curator Rina Carvajal asserts that by means of the disintegration and reconfiguration of the form, the visual discourse formulated by Gego (Gertrud Goldschmidt, 1912–1994), a Venezuelan artist of German origin, opened up [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1158157

  • La resistencia de las sombras : Alejandro Otero y Gego = The shadow's resistance : Alejandro Otero and Gego
    Pérez Oramas, Luis, 1960-
    In this essay, Luis Enrique Pérez Oramas finds that the work of Armando Reverón is the source of a “formalist tale,” defined as a theme of “traces and shadows.” It is a theme that Pérez Oramas pursues through the entire period when modern [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1156379

  • There's another China
    Kruger, Julie
    The United States journalist Julie Kruger interviewed the Venezuelan artist Alirio Palacios in connection with his exhibition of woodcuts at the Galería Polo & Bot (Caracas, 1967). The show presented prints made by the artist during his studies [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1155219

  • Un hospital dentro del museo = Of a hospital within a Museum
    Téllez, Javier
    Javier Téllez wrote this text in 1996 to accompany his installation La extracción de la piedra de la locura [The Extraction of the Stone of Madness] on exhibit at the Museo de Bellas Artes de Caracas. Téllez, like Theodor W. Adorno before him, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1155003

  • La extracción de la piedra de la locura : una instalación de Javier Téllez = The Cure of Madness. An installation by Javier Téllez
    Hernández, Carmen, 1957-
    The curator Carmen Hernández reviews the installation La extracción de la piedra de la locura (Caracas, Museo de Bellas Artes, 1996) by the Venezuelan artist Javier Téllez. In the introduction to her review, Hernández discusses the artist’s [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1154986

  • Arte-correo una nueva forma de expresión
    Vigo, Edgardo Antonio; Zabala, Horacio, 1943-
    Published in the first issue of Buzón de Arte/Arte de Buzón (Caracas, January, 1976), in this article, Argentinean artists Edgardo Antonio Vigo and Horacio Zabala analyze the interaction that exists between two traditionally different systems of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1154763

  • La caja del cachicamo
    Barboza, Diego, 1945-
    In this review of La caja del cachicamo, the action art event Diego Barboza presented at the Parque del Este (Caracas, October 1974), the Venezuelan artist describes its purpose and its components. The goal of the event is that the participants’ [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1154747

  • Clemente Padín : el artista está al servicio de la comunidad
    Padín, Clemente, 1939-
    In this article, published in the magazine Buzón de Arte/Arte de Buzón nº 1 (Caracas, January 1976), the Uruguayan artist Clemente Padín describes his work/action project, “El artista está al servicio de la comunidad,” which could be seen at [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1154731

  • Buzón de Arte - Arte Buzón
    Barboza, Diego, 1945-
    This is the first issue of Buzón de Arte/Arte de Buzón, the Venezuelan bilingual (Spanish-English) (tabloid) magazine managed and edited by Diego Barboza as a vehicle for mail art. It includes reproductions of works by artists from several [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1154618

  • Miler Lagos
    Roca, José Ignacio
    José Ignacio Roca reviews Cimientos [Foundations], a work by Miler Lagos, for the international magazine Art on Paper that focuses exclusively on works on paper. His first observation is that, in Lagos’ work, the materials contradict their [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150262

  • Color in Painting and Architecture
    Riley, Charles A., II
    Jaime Franco, who graduated with degrees in Engineering and Computer Science, went to Paris where he gradually started producing sculpture. His study of different types of surfaces later influenced his paintings that included juxtapositions of layers [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150246

  • 2 contrasting exhibits here
    Portner, Leslie Judd
    In her article “2 Contrasting Exhibits Here,” the North American critic Leslie Judd Portner mentions two exhibitions that were held simultaneously at the Pan-American Union in Washington, featuring the works of the Swiss artist Hans Erni (b. 1909 [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150230

  • America
    Mosquera, Gerardo
    Five continents and one city: The Tercer Salón Internacional de Pintura [3rd International Painting Salon], held in Mexico City in 2000, was based on the selections made by five curators, each of whom chose three contemporary artists from their [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150214

  • A wry defiance behind garish colors and tabloid dramas
    Cotter, Holland, 1947-
    The art critic for the New York Times, Holland Cotter, introduces the artist Beatriz González—who is also an art critic—as an artist who defies the conventions imposed by the North American and European art markets and sets her own rules as [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150182

  • Failing better : Salcedo's trajectory
    Mengham, Rod, 1953-
    In this article, the British critic Rod Mengham reviews Doris Salcedo’s installation Neither (2004) in terms of the Colombian artist’s career, identifying significant changes in her work since 2002. Up until that point, Salcedo had produced [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150166

  • [Letter] 1970 January 26, New York [to] David Bronheim
    Rockefeller, David, 1915-
    This is a letter written by the American entrepreneur and patron, David Rockefeller, to David Bronheim, president of the Center for Inter-American Relations, New York, on January 26, 1970. The letter thanked Bronheim for the good time he had on the [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150119

  • [Letter] 1969 September 17, Granada Hills, CA [to] Gego
    Weddle, Ruth
    This is a personal letter written to the Venezuelan artist originally from Germany, Gego (Gertrud Goldschmidt, 1912–1994), from her friend, Ruth Weddle. Weddle was an editor who was Gego’s classmate at the Tamarind Lithography Workshop in San [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150101

  • Jump cuts : dislocated continuities = Jump cuts : continuidades dislocadas
    Fuenmayor, Jesús
    In this essay written for the exhibition Jump Cuts: Venezuelan Contemporary Art, Colección Mercantil, held in 2007, Venezuelan critic and curator Jesús Fuenmayor uses the cinematographic notion of “the jump cut” to formulate a vision of [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150047

  • La materialidad en Gego = Gego´s materialism
    Shiff, Richard
    In this 2002 lecture, the American art history professor, Richard Shiff, analyzes specific aspects of Gego’s use of materials and her manual sensibility. As a theoretical basis for the study, Shiff proposes the concepts of “vectors”— [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1150029

  • Una breve genealogía del arte contemporáneo en Venezuela = A brief genealogy of contemporary art in Venezuela
    González, Julieta, 1968-
    Julieta González reflects on the major trends in contemporary Venezuelan art, suggesting that the dominant movement among them is art derived from a particular context and involving a predetermined space and discourse that expresses local themes. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149993

  • Los espacios de Gego
    Mahlow, Dietrich
    The German curator, writer, and art historian, Dr. Dietrich Mahlow wrote a study of the spaces created by the [installation] of Reticulárea, created by the Venezuelan visual artist originally from Germany, Gego [Gertrud Goldschmidt, 1912–1994]. [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149629

  • Another geometry : Gego´s reticulárea, 1969-1982
    Amor, Monica
    In this essay, Mónica Amor analyzes the contribution that the work by Gego, Reticulárea, has made to contemporary art. She claims that Reticulárea is a radical attack on the way architecture defines space, as well as the conventions of sculpture, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149547

  • Gego : trazas de trazos = Gego´s traces of traces
    Zegher, Catherine de
    This analysis by Catherine de Zegher focuses on Gego’s drawing in space. After an introduction in which she describes earlier works by important artists that engage the notion of drawing in space, as well as those by Gego’s contemporaries, de [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149528

  • [Letter] 1970 January 10, New York [to] Stanton L. Catlin
    Moholy- Nagy, Sibyl, 1903-1971
    [This document is] a letter written in English by the architecture professor Sibyl Moholy-Nagy to Stanton L. Catlin, director of the art gallery at the Center for Inter-American Relations in New York, dated January 10, 1970. She writes to say that [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1149264

  • [Letter] 1972 July 21, Caracas, Venezuela [to] James Harithas
    This letter written in English by Gego, a Venezuelan artist of German origin, is addressed to Mr. James Harithas, director of the Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, New York. Dated July 21, 1972, the letter states that despite her enthusiasm, Gego must [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148350

  • [Letter] 1974 July 18, Caracas, Venezuela [to] Mrs. Blumberg
    This letter written by Gego in English is addressed to Mrs. Sandra Trop Blumberg, executive director of the Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, New York. In it, Gego acknowledges receipt of Blumberg’s letter, dated July 3, and informs her that she [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148329

  • Los campos de fuerza en Gego : Gego´s force fields
    Brett, Guy
    According to English critic and curator Guy Brett, abstract works of art, whether systematic or informal in nature, can be seen as models of the universe. It is on this premise that he studies Gego’s work. Brett maintains that the work of many [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148309

  • On not being venezuelan
    Feldman, Hannah
    Art historian Hanna Feldman takes issue with critics who approach Gego’s art from a nationalist (Venezuelan) perspective, which she believes limits its scope and social importance. Feldman asserts that contemporary experiences of migration, exile, [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148266

  • Siting the event : Gego, modernity, and the cartographic turn
    Bosteels, Bruno
    In this essay, Bruno Bosteels, a Belgian professor of Romance languages and literature, analyzes Gego’s art, focusing particularly on her environmental work, Reticulárea (1969). Bosteels grounds his analysis on the work of scholars from a number [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1148248

  • El arte peruano en la escuela - II
    Izcue, Elena, 1889-1970
    This is the second of the two textbooks published by Elena Izcue, which were designed to teach art based on pre-Hispanic motifs at Peruvian schools. It includes two introductory texts. The first, addressed to teachers, explains how the pedagogical [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146115

  • El arte peruano en la escuela - I
    Izcue, Elena, 1889-1970
    Ventura García Calderón asserts in this prologue that, in Latin America, the Spanish and Indian races did not mix and that the former ignored the latter even though it was, in his view, “one of the most perfect civilizations in the world.” He [...]
    ICAA Record ID: 1146099