Tucumán Arde [Tucumán Is Burning] is the most famous collective production of emerging vanguard art in Argentina, both in Buenos Aires and Rosario, and it took place at the turning point of the artists’ political and artistic radicalization in 1968. Its design implied a complex process of research and counter-information as well as a mass-media campaign. A small group, made up of two artists from Rosario (Rubén Naranjo and Juan Pablo Renzi) and two artists from Buenos Aires (Pablo Suárez and Roberto Jacoby), carried out an exploratory trip to Tucumán, where they tightened their bonds with labor-union members and university student leaders from the area. Later, a larger number of artists (mostly from Rosario) traveled to Tucumán on October 22, 1968. There, supported by union members, journalists, and other collaborators, the artists developed an underground account of the social situation of the sugar mills (closed by then), schools, hospitals, and so forth, seeking information that would prove the falsehood of the official campaign regarding the so-called Operativo Tucumán. Once they arrived in Tucumán, the artists stayed at the union headquarters and in private homes of student leaders or delegates of the FOTIA (Federación Obrera Tucumana de la Industria Azucarera) [Tucumán Sugar Industry Worker Federation].