Orientación: órgano central del Partido Comunista [Orientation: Central Organ of the Communist Party] was the newspaper of the Argentinean Communist Party. It circulated weekly beginning September 1936 under the title Hoy [Today]; later it adopted the name Orientación Semanario de información política, social y económica [Orientation: Political, Social, and Economic Weekly]. Although declared illegal and closed down in June 1943, it reappeared in August 15, 1945, as the official weekly newspaper published regularly until December 21, 1949, a period during which it was directed first in illegality by Ernesto Giudici (1907–92) and then by Rodolfo Ghioldi (1897-1985) under free circulation since April 30, 1947. The manifesto was signed by Antonio Berni, Vicente Caride, Romualdo Brughetti, Juan C. Castagnino, Miguel De Lorenzo, Manuel Oscar Espinosa, Luis Falcini, Albino Fernández, Chelo E. Fernández, Norberto A. Frontini, Carlos Giambiagi, Nina Haeberle, Alfredo Hlito, César Inga, Horacio Juárez, Raúl Lozza, Tomás Maldonado, Onofrio A. Pacenza, Alicia Pérez Penalba, Luis Pellegrini, E. Policastro, Eolo Pons, Pablo Rojas Paz, Segundo S. Rojas, Toño Salazar, Ideal Sánchez, Raúl Soldi, Lino Enea Spilimbergo, Demetrio Urruchúa, Domingo Viau, Wilfredo Viladrich, José Villalobos, Saúl Fucks, Mario Glorioso, and Raúl Monsegur, among many other artists. The manifesto was drawn up by Luis Seoane, a Spanish artist who lived in exile in Argentina. Note that the manifesto presentation (which was not signed) makes reference to another critique of the Exhibition of Contemporary Spanish Art published on November 12, issue number 417, of this same newspaper. This document was selected because it gives testimony of the circulation of complaints by a considerable group of Argentinean artists against the absence of more politically engaged Spanish artists at the Exhibition of Contemporary Spanish Art.