This article discusses the emergence of independent experimental cinema, an alternative to the rise of mass media, especially television, which prompted the closing of several commercial cinema theaters in the early 1970s.
Abrão Berman, the journalist and movie director, founded GRIFE (Grupo de Realizadores Independentes de Filmes Experimentais), which in 1973 hosted the Expo-projeção, the first exhibition of audiovisual works by artists, organized by Aracy Amaral. Berman started the Cine-Clube Paiol and produced the television program Ação Super 8. He died in 1991.
Eduardo Llorente, who was born in Spain, directed movies such as Lá no meu sertão (1962) and Coração de luto (1967). He was a member of the circle of independent cinema producers in São Paulo known as “boca do lixo” [trash bin], along with Ozualdo Candeias and José Mojica Marins. He authored the book Cinema, arte dos efeitos, published by Íris.
[See in the ICAA digital archive the following articles about photography published in Íris: by Harumi Yamagishi “Foto conceitual” (1110872); by Thomas J. Farkas “Fotografia-caminhos diversos” (1110873); by João Koranyi “Fotografia abstrata? (Conclusão)” (doc. no.1110874) and “A missão cultural da fotografia” (1110871); by Vilém Flusser “O futuro e a cultura da imagen” (doc. no.1110898) and “O instrumento do fotógrafo ou o fotógrafo-instrumento?” (1110899); by Stefania Bril “As relações futuras do homem com a máquina” (1110897); and by Luis Humberto “Uma fotografia criativa e seus impedimentos” (1110876)].