The editorial categories are research topics that have guided researchers during the recovery phase and continue to be the impetus behind the Documents Project’s digital archive and the Critical Documents book series. Developed by the project’s Editorial Board, each of the teams analyzed this framework and adapted it to their local contexts in developing their research objectives and work plans during the Recovery Phase. Learn more on the Editorial Framework page.
Shifra M. Goldman’s essay provides a brief history of the Chicano Movement and also names some of the early Mexican American women’s political groups, professional associations, and art groups. She discusses the overall failure of the Chicano Movement in order to challenge gender inequality and the sexist stereotypes inflicted upon Chicanas. While acknowledging the influence of feminism on Chicanas, she says that the racism and classism within white feminism at times polarized Euro-American and Third World feminists. Goldman explains the difficulties that women artists faced in participating in the early phase of the Chicano art movement that was dominated by public art forms, comparing this to the surge of Chicana artists who appeared in the late-1970s when Chicano art shifted to gallery, museum, and college exhibition venues. Goldman provides a history of Chicana art making that begins in the colonial period and includes vernacular art forms and domestic crafts. She notes the sources of key images in Chicana art of the 1970s, including images of Frida Kahlo and vernacular art of the southwest United States.
Shifra M. Goldman is an art historian and scholar who wrote extensively about Mexican, Latino, and Chicano art and artists. She has been a strong advocate of Chicano art, using her knowledge of Mexican artists (especially muralists) to provide a framework for the inclusion of Chicano artists within a larger art history. In its subject matter, variety of artwork, and geographic scope, the Chicana Voices & Visions exhibition, curated by Goldman, was an important first national showcase of Chicana art. In her introduction, she outlines her curatorial approach and also provides a valuable history of Chicana art, beginning with the Neo-Spanish colonial period through the Chicano Movement. Of note in Chicano art scholarship (of both sexes) is her delineation of the multiple challenges faced by Chicana artists, from outside and within the culture, as well as her description of the differences in iconography between Chicano and Chicana artists.