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  • ICAA Record ID
    Al público de la América Latina y del mundo entero : principalmente a los escritores : artistas y hombres de ciencia: hacemos la siguiente declaración / M. Alvarez Bravo... [et al.]
    Poster – Press Release
    "Al público de la América Latina y del mundo entero: principalmente a los escritores; artistas y hombres de ciencia; hacemos la siguiente declaración," 1938. Flyer. Private archive, Mexico City.

The protest reports on a series of cancellations and blockages that prevented André Breton from arriving at the university and other college facilities. This occurred despite his official invitation and the fact that his presentation was planned in advance.


A handful of intellectuals and artists broke with the policy of maintaining total silence with regard to André Breton (1896-1966); the policy was in place not due to his connections to Surrealism, but rather because of his intimacy with León Trotsky (Lev Davidovich Bronstein, 1879-1940)—the leader of the Fourth International, Commissar of the People and colleague of Lenin.

This document is relevant because it allows us to know who circumvented Stalin’s dictate due to other political affiliations. The group of signers included Diego Rivera (1886-1957), Frida Kahlo (1907-54), as well as the Marín family, connected through Rivera’s first marriage (Guadalupe, Jesús and Francisco Marín), the Surrealist César Moro (1903-56), the photographer Manuel Álvarez Bravo (1902-2002); officials such as Antonio Hidalgo, the caricaturist Santiago R. De la Vega, writers such as Jacobo Dalevuelta (pseudonym of Fernando Ramírez de Aguilar), Adolfo Zamora of Nicaragua, Francisco Zamora, who collaborated on the Trotskyist magazine Clave [Key]; Frances Toor, the American folklorist behind the magazine Mexican Folkways (1925-37); architect Luis Barragán (1902-88); sculptors Ignacio Asúnsulo and Mardonio Magaña; painters Adolfo Best Maugard (1891-1964), Roberto Montenegro (1885-1968), Agustín Lazo (1896-1971) and Rufino Tamayo (1899-1991), Antonio Ruiz, Jorge Enciso, and Carlos Mérida (1891-1984), among others.

Among the writers for the Contemporáneos magazine, Salvador Novo (1904-74) should be mentioned, as well as Xavier Villaurrutia (1903-50), Jorge Cuesta, José Gorostiza and Carlos Pellicer. The poet Pellicer had been a member of the contingent from the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios (LEAR) [League of Revolutionary Writers and Artists] at the Valencia Congress, in support of the Republic of Spain. Julio Bracho, the director of the workers’ theater who later became a film director, was yet another signer. 

Francisco Reyes Palma
CURARE, Espacio crítico para las artes, Mexico City, Mexico
D.R. © 2011 Banco de México, “Fiduciario” en el Fideicomiso relativo a los Museos Diego Rivera y Frida Kahlo. Av. Cinco de Mayo No. 2, Col. Centro, Del. Cuauhtémoc 06059, México, D.F.
© Barragan Foundation, Birsfelden, Switzerland, for the work of Luis Barragán
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