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    The iconography of chicano self-determination: race, ethnicity, and class / by Shifra M. Goldman
    Art Journal. (New York, USA).-- Vol. 49, no. 2 (Summer 1990)
    p. 167-173 : ill.
    Journal article – Essays
    Goldman, Shifra M. "The iconography of chicano self-determination: race, ethnicity, and class." Art Journal (New York, NY) 49, 2. (Summer 1990): 167-173.
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In this essay, Shifra M. Goldman discusses Chicano art in the United States from a social art historical perspective. According to her the first phase of the Chicano art movement (1965–1980s) was characterized by a quest for self-identity, which was a response to the oppression by the dominant culture. In this search for a self-determined identity, Chicano artists chose to celebrate their race, ethnicity, and working class status in their artwork. During this time, certain images became leitmotifs of Chicano art, such as the Virgin of Guadalupe and the pachuco (a Chicano youth of the 1930s and 1940s who dressed in flamboyant clothes called zoot suit). Goldman discusses the work of the following artists in her essay: Antonio Bernal, Luis Jiménez, Xavier Viramontes, Victor Ochoa, Yreina Cervántez, Roberto Delgado, Yolanda López, René Yáñez, Luis Valdez, César A. Martínez, Emigdio Vásquez, Andy Zermeño, and David Avalos.


Shifra M. Goldman is an art historian and scholar who wrote extensively about Mexican, Latino, and Chicano art. This essay was printed in a special issue of the College Art Association Art Journal, entitled, “Depictions of the Dispossessed.” Goldman focuses on the sociological influences on Chicano art in order to provide a framework for understanding its iconography. Though very limited in its focus and thus not a comprehensive look at Chicano art iconography, it does provide an introduction to the intended audience of majority non-Latino art historians, curators, art professors, and art students. The essay does include a good cross section of Chicano artists and their art, from painting to installation art.

Tere Romo
Chicano Studies Research Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
Courtesy of Shifra Goldman Private Archives, Hollywood, CA