The editorial categories are research topics that have guided researchers during the recovery phase and continue to be the impetus behind the Documents Project’s digital archive and the Critical Documents book series. Developed by the project’s Editorial Board, each of the teams analyzed this framework and adapted it to their local contexts in developing their research objectives and work plans during the Recovery Phase. Learn more on the Editorial Framework page.
This is the second of three articles written by the art critic, Antonio Rodríguez. To provide continuity with the first essay, Rodríguez reviews the progress of illustrated journalism in Mexico from the woodcut print to copper plate print. From there, illustration moved on to lithographaphy, first used by Claudio Linati in the magazine Iris in 1826. This magazinetook advantage of different graphic genres, including portraits of heroes and fashion pictures. The article tells us that for the first time in Mexican journalism, examples of sheet music were presented: lithographs of popular songs and waltzes. With the rise of the lithograph, there was also the possibility of illustrating a set of new subjects to be addressed by periodicals and books. The appearance of a fiercely combative journalistic genre with popular roots, a strong satirical accent, and a significant visual art approach gave rise to great caricaturists. The writer describes some of these eminent artists such as Escalante in La Orquesta, Villasana in El Ahuizote, Santiago Hernández, Iriarte, and others, each with a highly characteristic stamp. The press was also given a strong boost with the launch of the newspaper El Imparcial, published by Reyes Spíndola. This newspaper began the daily use of highly realistic drawings from the agile pencil of Carlos Alcalde y Olvera, clearly one of the authentic graphic reporters of the period. Antonio Rodríguez breaks the story down to show how these graphic stories were gradually paving the way for journalistic photography.
The writer goes on to tell how illustrated journalism gained popularity through the work of José Guadalupe Posada and that of Vanegas Arroyo, his editor, in the Gacetas Callejeras [Street Gazettes]. According to the article, this publication sold about one million copies. Though Manilla and Picheta broke the ground in Yucatán, Posada helped popular journalism, the hojas volantes [flyers], and the ballads reach their peak. The article concludes by praising the work of Posada, one of the most important draftsmen and creator of images in the nineteenth century.
This essay highlights some of the technical resources used during the nineteenth century, with the lithograph as the preferred technology for reproduction in daily newspapers, magazines, brochures, and leaflets and/or gacetas callejeras [street gazettes]. Antonio Rodríguez (1914–1993) prepares an understanding of the problems presented by the photograph in the national press in the late nineteenth century. This was driven, on the one hand, by the need to illustrate the news, and, on the other, by the use of a technology that would unquestionably give better visual and graphic results. Photographs would also be more convincing for a population on the brink of the innovative twentieth century.