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The Mexican researcher Rita Eder discusses the possibility of consolidating an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the art of Latin America. This in fact took place in the 1970s, when the subject of “changing mental habits” was raised concerning the art being produced in the Americas. Thinking about the art created by a block of 21 countries means addressing issues of nationalism and internationalism, as well as matters related to the connection between art and society, which involve government institutions and local art media representatives. Absent all this, according to Eder, it would be practically impossible to establish any guidelines for “understanding Latin American art and what Latin America has been, is, and could be.”
Examina a possibilidade de consolidação de um campo interdisciplinar dirigido ao estudo da arte feita na América Latina em plena década de 1970, quando se constata um "fenômeno renovador dos hábitos mentais" frente à atual produção artística do continente. Pensar a arte de 21 países em bloco requer, na opinião da autora, discutir os problemas do nacionalismo e do internacionalismo, de temas ligados às relações entre arte e sociedade, arte e instituições governamentais e entre os agentes dos meios artísticos locais. Sem o que, não haveria modo de colocar em pauta uma maneira de "entender a arte e uma concepção do que tem sido, é e pode ser a América Latina".
Rita Eder is an art historian who spent many years with the Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas at the UNAM (Mexico City). Since 1975 she has taken a great interest in the art produced in her country and in the rest of Latin America. She took part in the Austin Symposium in Texas and subsequently established relationships with Latin American critics such as Damián C. Bayón (1915–90) from Argentina—the organizer of the event—, the Peruvian Juan Acha (1916–95) who lived in Mexico, the Brazilian Aracy Amaral (b. 1930), and Marta Traba (1923–83), who was from Argentina but who had settled in Colombia. The first volume in the series Critical Documents of 20th–century Latin American and Latino Art (organized by Héctor Olea, Mari Carmen Ramírez, and Tomás Ybarra-Frausto, 2012) addressed the question of identity. This subject is discussed in Chapter IV, Section 2.7–8, “Artes Visuales Asks the Question: When Will the Art of Latin America become Latin American Art?”. The question is answered in essays by Bayón, Jorge Romero Brest, and Rita Eder: “Why a Latin American Art?” [see docs. no. 1061734, 1061762, and 1061782, respectively].
This document is the text of the lecture that Eder gave decades later at the Primeira Bienal Latino-Americana de São Paulo, organized by Amaral in 1978, in which Eder reviews the theories concerning twentieth-century art in the region. She concludes that the “range of methodological possibilities” has increased “as the study of art has become receptive to the analytical methods used in the social sciences.” This critical diagnosis was confirmed throughout the Symposium and its objectives became apparent in the texts presented by the anthropologists Darcy Ribeiro, Alba Zaluar, and Néstor García Canclini, among other participating intellectuals involved in the field of social anthropology.
Nesta conferência apresentada durante o simpósio da I Bienal Latino-Americana de São Paulo, em 1978, a crítica de arte mexicana Rita Eder passa em revista teorias de interpretação formuladas sobre a arte do século XX na América Latina, para concluir que se amplia uma "gama de possibilidades metodológicas à medida que o estudo da arte se abre aos modos de análises presentes nas ciências sociais". Tal diagnóstico se confirma, por exemplo, nos propósitos deste mesmo simpósio, do qual participaram, além de Eder, os antropólogos Darcy Ribeiro, Alba Zaluar e Néstor Garcia Canclini, entre outros cientistas sociais.
a- Intercâmbio de idéias e difusão artística entre países do continente