The editorial categories are research topics that have guided researchers during the recovery phase and continue to be the impetus behind the Documents Project’s digital archive and the Critical Documents book series. Developed by the project’s Editorial Board, each of the teams analyzed this framework and adapted it to their local contexts in developing their research objectives and work plans during the Recovery Phase. Learn more on the Editorial Framework page.
This article is a commentary about the unsuccessful display in New York of the calogramas [also known as Kallograms] by the Mexican José de Torres y de Palomar, among other reasons, for having refused to transform his graphic proposals into advertising logos. It also describes how his son, José Torres Zubieta, continued the graphic tradition of the callograms after his father´s untimely death.
The “calograma” is an invention by José de Torres y de Palomar. It somehow condenses the visual idea of the calligrams by Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) in which the artist—in addition to typographical designs, such as the initials of a name—adds certain figurations. The result being a psychic caricature; or else, the inclusion of a visual element associated with the subject, meant to function as an identifier. The impulse achieved through graphics and caricature by Mexican artists such as Marius de Zayas (1880-1961), Emilio Amero, or Miguel Covarrubias is noteworthy, as well as how they tried their professional luck in the United States, given the developed editorial industry, particularly the illustrated press. Several of Torres Zubieta’s works were appreciated at the exhibit of activist art groups.