Documents of 20th-century Latin American and Latino Art Home


Document first page thumbnail

Based on this description by the chronicler of Estridentismo and director of the magazine Horizonte, Germán List Arzubide, said publication was sponsored by the revolutionary government of the State of Veracruz. The magazine got its impulse from the estridentista leader Manuel Maples Arce, and became a reality with the support of General Heriberto Jara, a revolutionary, a politician, and at that time, the governor. List Arzubide mentions the contributors to Horizonte: Arqueles Vela, Ramón Alva de la Canal and Leopoldo Méndez, among many others There were occasional collaborators such as the photographer Tina Modotti, Diego Rivera, and Gabriel Fenández Ledesma, who contributed avant-garde works. Furthermore, List Arzubide points to workers as the best support for the magazine, with the comment that for the estridentistas, Horizonte is a school for action and energy. The author finally emphasizes the sense of responsibility of the magazine as well as its permanent struggle to “formar un verdadero horizonte”[create a true new horizon].


From April 1926 through May 1927, ten issues of the magazine Horizonte were published and its circulation exceeded the avant-garde norm. On the other hand, the endeavor became internationalized so that the magazine reached Spanish-speaking intellectuals and artists in the United States. Ramón Alva de la Canal and Leopoldo Méndez were in charge of both design and illustrations. Furthermore, there were occasional photographic collaborations by Edward Weston and Tina Modotti, while Pedro Casilla was the photographer on staff. There were also contributions by important artists such as Diego Rivera and Gabriel Fernández Ledesma.

Estridentismo, an early Mexican avant-garde [movement], originated in 1921, parallel to the muralist movement. Its creator and for some time only member was Manuel Maples Arce (1898-1981), a poet from Veracruz who rebelled against modernist poets and academic painting. Closely related to Dadaism, futurism, Ultraism, and creationism—in both its European and Latin American manifestations—Estridentismo was a movement that dealt with agitprop strategies and an unrestricted fondness for a mechanical aesthetics. The very name of the movement refers to city noise, as well as to their wish to be heard because of its embedded transgressions and excesses.

It was a movement of artists devoted to literature, music, painting, engraving, photography, and sculpture. Estridentismo used as its center of operations El Café de Nadie in Mexico City. Later on, it relocated to the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) where its members got involved in the educational reform. Available to the movement were several publications such as the magazines: Ser, Irradiador, and Horizonte.

Francisco Reyes Palma : CURARE A.C.
CURARE, Espacio crítico para las artes, Mexico City, Mexico
Courtesy of Eric List, Mexico City, México
Archivo Francisco Reyes Palma