The editorial categories are research topics that have guided researchers during the recovery phase and continue to be the impetus behind the Documents Project’s digital archive and the Critical Documents book series. Developed by the project’s Editorial Board, each of the teams analyzed this framework and adapted it to their local contexts in developing their research objectives and work plans during the Recovery Phase. Learn more on the Editorial Framework page.
This text is a review of the second edition of the São Paulo Biennial (1953) by the editorial board of the Madí journal under Gyula Kosice. The biennial opened at the same time as the second exhibition of architecture that included retrospectives of Futurism, Cubism, and the De Stijl group. Forty countries participated in the biennial, among them Argentina, whose representation included recognized figures like Althabe, Badii, Blaszko, Curatella Manes, Desbecq, Hlito, Iommi, and Gyula Kosice himself. The article bemoans the incoherence in the selection of artists from Argentina as well as the lack of guides trained to clearly explain the artistic tendencies on exhibit.
The journal Arte Madí Universal (1947–54) was the bulletin of the Movimiento de Arte Madí. Czech-born sculptor and poet Gyula Kosice [Fernando Fallik] (Kosice, Slovakia, 1924–Buenos Aires, 2016) was the movement’s cofounder and leader, and the director of its journal. Kosice also wrote under the alias of Raymundo Rasas Pet, and explained that that heteronym was a sort of alter-ego over which he had no control. He used the name as well at exhibitions of works of art like, for instance, the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles in Paris in 1948 [see ICAA digital archive (doc. no.1297238)].
Founded by Kosice, German visual artist Martín Blaszko (1920–2011), and Uruguayan visual artists Rhod Rothfuss [Carlos María Rothfuss] (1920–69) and Carmelo Arden Quin [Carmelo Heriberto Alves] (1913–2010) in 1946, the Movimiento de Arte Madí formed part of a major cultural revolution that gave rise to an impressive and productive exchange in Argentina between the visual arts and other artistic disciplines. On the Movimiento Madí, see the “Manifiesto Madí” (doc. no. 732008), “Madigrafías” (doc. no. 1297374), and the dictionary of terms invented by Kosice (doc. no. 1297301).
Kosice, Arden Quin, Rothfuss, and Argentine poet Edgar Bayley (1919–90) had planted the seed of that revolution in 1944 with the first and only issue of the journal Arturo—a publication that would change the course of Latin American art—in articles like Arden Quin’s [Son las condiciones materiales de la sociedad…] (doc. no. 729906); Edgar Bayley’s [Durante mucho tiempo el criterio...] (doc. no. 730241); Gyula Kosice’s [La aclimatación gratuita a las llamadas escuelas…] (doc. no. 729940); Rhod Rothfuss’s “El marco: un problema de plástica actual” (doc. no. 729833); and Joaquín Torres-García’s “Con respecto a una futura creación literaria” (doc. no. 730292). The Arturo artists condemned the backward realisms that dominated the Argentine art scene at the time. They wanted to leave expression and illusionism in art behind to replace them with concrete art based on the notion of “invention” or pure creation. After the original Arturo group split due to theoretical differences, different tendencies emerged: the Asociación de Arte Concreto-Invención (AACI, founded in 1945), the Movimiento de Arte Madí (founded in 1946), and Perceptismo (founded in 1949). The agenda of each group is stated in its foundational manifestos: the Manifiesto Invencionista (doc. no. 731641), the aforementioned Manifiesto Madí, and the Manifiesto Perceptista (doc. no. 731656).