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    Los intelectuales del Uruguay frente a la dictadura / sin firma
    Movimiento. Órgano Oficial de la Confederación de Trabajadores Intelectuales del Uruguay (Montevideo, Uruguay). -- No. 5 (abril, 1934)
    p. 4
    Journal article – Essays

     Movimiento. Órgano Oficial de la Confederación de Trabajadores Intelectuales del Uruguay (Montevideo, Uruguay). "Los intelectuales de Uruguay frente a la dictadura".  no. 5 (April 1934): 4.

    Terra, José Luis, 1873-1942

This essay analyzes the posture taken by the Uruguayan intellectuals when faced with the dictatorship of Gabriel Terra (1931-38). This 1933 coup d’état provoked a shift in the political stance of the intellectuals and particularly of the Uruguayan artists. The article found in the magazine Movimiento (the alternate name of the magazine to the initial name Aportación that was changed following the visit of Siqueiros to Montevideo that same year) condemns all those who did not assume a position against the de facto government. Essentially, the artists were urged to support “proletarian candidacies.” It is defined as a “unanimous” position taken by the intellectuals against the situation of political attrition and cultural decline, especially after it became evident that five national artists, the poet Alfredo Mario Ferreiro, the artists Melchor Méndez Magariños and Carlos Aliseris, and the sculptors José Belloni and Rossi Magliano, “lent themselves to praising the dictator and his government.”


After directing the coup d’état of March 31, 1933, with the support of the police, firefighters, and a majority of the Nationalist Party, as well as the conservative sectors of the Red Party, Gabriel Terra implemented policies to benefit the interests of the industrial, livestock, and ranching oligarchies. In international relations, Uruguay was seen as linked to Mussolini's Italy and Hitler's Germany, also the “Falangist” cause of the Spanish Civil War. Terra broke relations with the USSR in 1935, inviting the United States president Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) to visit that same year. To combat the situation of internal political tension (as attempted rebellions were quickly repressed by the police forces) a decision was made by the government that all intellectuals who did not sign a letter of allegiance and endorsement of the established regime would be detained and imprisoned. In response, the C.T.I.U (Confederación de Trabajadores Intelectuales del Uruguay [Confederation of Intellectual Workers of Uruguay]) encouraged the artistic circles and the public to support the fight against the dictatorship, making this document to be seen as a public denouncement.

Marina Garcia, Gabriel Peluffo
Archivo Biblioteca Nacional Uruguay