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In this commentary, Milton Sogabe describes the differences between how artists think when using traditional techniques and when using electronic media. In his investigation, the writer hopes to discover the expressive potential of both types of media, tackling the image in terms of its material makeup—whether it is from a diachronic or synchronic perspective. In order to consider the interrelationships that are woven among the media, the writer calls upon comparative methods. Sogabe regards light as a unifying element in the production of any image, and he ends up proposing three categories of light, related to their predominance: iconic light (TV, holograms); reflected light (film and photography); symbolic light (in painting). By way of a visual conclusion, he presents an image that has no light; that is, the numerical, digital image of the computer, which bears no relationship whatever to reality.
Milton Sogabe descreve e comenta as diferenças entre o modo de pensar de um artista quando trabalha com técnicas tradicionais e quando trabalha com meios denominados eletroeletrônicos. O autor busca descobrir o potencial expressivo de ambos os meios. Aborda a imagem por sua constituição material, de forma diacrônica e de forma sincrônica, e utiliza métodos comparativos para fazer uma reflexão sobre as inter-relações dos meios. Sogabe vê na luz o elemento unificador para a produção de qualquer imagem e estabelece três categorias de luz, quanto à predominância: icônica - TV, hologramas; luz indicial - fotografia e cinema; luz simbólica - pintura. O texto termina apresentando imagens sem luz - a imagem numérica, digital dos computadores, sem relação física com o real.
Milton Sogabe (b. 1953) is an artist, researcher, and professor at the Instituto de Artes de la Universidade do Estado de São Paulo (UNESP). In the field of “art and technology,” he has been identified with activities developed as innovations since the 1980s. Along with several other artists, he belonged to Instituto de Pesquisa em Arte e Tecnologia (IPAT). Among these artists, some of the most distinguished were Julio Plaza, Paulo Laurentiz, and Artur Matuk, whose contributions to art of this kind in Brazil include works with video-text, slow-scan TV, and even fax. In 1995, Sogabe founded SCIArts along with other artists and scientists with an interdisciplinary bent who are dedicated to exploring the relationships formed by art that delves into science via technology.
To find support in Brazil for Sogabe’s interpretation, see “Espressão, arte e tecnologia” [doc. no. 1110492]. This text by Francisco Bittencourt reflects the period of intense artistic experimentation that went on in Brazil in the 1970s, via technological media that generated audiovisual images. That was also the decade when Walter Zanini was director of the Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo (MAC-USP). As director, he organized exhibitions on this theme with Julio Plaza: one called, Poéticas Visuais, “As novas possibilidades = The new possibilities” [doc. no. 1110585], and another under the title of Perspectiva ’74, “Introdução” [doc. no. 1110588]. In addition, Zanini wrote a paradigmatic text on the issue, “Primeiros tempos da arte/tecnologia no Brasil” [doc. no. 1111029]. The well-known physicist and politician Mário Schenberg had written an earlier essay on this theme in Brazil, “Arte e tecnologia” [doc. no. 1111105]. Another important Brazilian art critic who had a lively interest in the conjunction between art and technology was Frederico Morais, who wrote an article on “Abraham Palatnik: um pioneiro da arte tecnológica” [doc. no. 1110793], in which he gave a specific account of the ground-breaking nature of his kinechromatic work. In 1986, the critic who showed the importance of Abraham Palatnik as a predecessor was Eduardo Kac in “Em Brasil High Tech, o xeque ao pós-moderno” [doc. no. 1111320]. And of course, an artist not to be overlooked is the great pioneer of electronic and Concrete art, painter Waldemar Cordeiro. Starting in the late 1960s, Cordeiro came up with a term for art that was electronic by nature in “Arteônica” [doc. no. 1110836], and “Computer plotter art - primeira mostra na América Latina” [doc. no. 1110487].
Milton Sogabe é artista, pesquisador e professor do Instituto de Artes da UNESP. Tem se destacado no cenário da "arte e tecnologia", pelas atividades que desenvolve desde a década de 80. Pertenceu ao Instituto de Pesquisa em Arte e Tecnologia- IPAT, ao lado de vários outros artistas, entre os quais Julio Plaza, Paulo Laurentiz e Artur Matuk, que iniciaram trabalhos com vídeo texto, slow- scan TV e fax na arte brasileira. Em 1995, fundou o SCIArts com outros artistas e cientistas de formação interdisciplinar, dedicados a explorar as relações entre arte, ciência e tecnologia.
l- Arte e tecnologia digital. Poéticas digitais
l- Luz: matéria luminosa e desmaterialização