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Synopsis

Jacob Klintowitz, the author of this text, mocks the boycott of the São Paulo Biennial since many of the countries participating in it have committed countless “international sins” in his view. He states that he does not support any form of censorship, pointing out that he has been an active participant in campaigns against censorship in theater and film. He clarifies that fighting against discrimination is not the same thing as using allegations of censorship to fight against plays and films. 

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Synopsis

O autor comenta o Boicote à Bienal de São Paulo, ridicularizando o protesto, já que dele participaria uma série de países que teriam cometido inúmeros "pecados internacionais". Afirma não ser favorável à censura, tendo inclusive participado ativamente da campanha contra a censura teatral e cinematográfica, no entanto, ressalta que lutar contra a discriminação é diferente de lutar contra a realização do teatro ou cinema alegando censura.

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Annotations

The tenth São Paulo Biennial (1969) was subject to an international boycott in response to the harshness of the military dictatorship in power in Brazil from 1964 to 1985. In 1968, five years after the coup and following the rise of urban and rural guerrilla groups, the de facto government enacted Institutional Act Number Five (AI-5), suspending individual rights and imposing censorship in a number of spheres. The boycott of the biennial began to take shape when the Ministério das Relações Exteriores (Itamaraty) censored a show at the Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro (MAM-Rio) featuring work that was to represent Brazil at the VI Paris Biennale. The military police stormed the museum, which was forced to close the exhibition of contemporary artists. The leader of the boycott in Brazil was art critic Mário Pedrosa, the president of the Associação Brasileira de Críticos de Arte (ABCA) at the time. The boycott gained support from critics, as well as important artists, based in the United States, France, Mexico, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Argentina. This tenth biennial would come to be known as “The Boycott Biennial.”

 

Intellectual and politician Mário Pedrosa (1900–81) was unquestionably the pivotal figure in twentieth-century Brazilian art theory and criticism. During the Estado Novo under dictator Getúlio Vargas, Pedrosa lived in exile in France and New York, returning to Brazil after World War II. A contributor to Correio da Manhã, he later founded the weekly Vanguarda Socialista as a result of his anti-Stalinist views. He wrote the art column for Tribuna da Imprensa from 1950 to 1954, and was a member of the organizing committee for the second and third São Paulo Biennials (1953 and 1955 respectively) before becoming the director of MAM-SP (1961–63). During the military dictatorship in Brazil, he sought exile in Chile where he directed the Museo de la Solidaridad in Santiago. After the coup under Pinochet (1973), he went to Havana where he was the secretary of the Museo de la Resistencia Salvador Allende. He did not return to Brazil until 1977. In 1980, he was the first person to sign the manifesto founding the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT). Part of his vast library (some eight thousand volumes) is available at the Biblioteca Nacional in Rio de Janeiro.

Journalist and art critic Jacob Klintowitz (b. 1941) was a contributor to the newspapers Tribuna da Imprensa (Rio de Janeiro) and Jornal da Tarde (São Paulo). Since 2007, he has been the curator of the Museu Brasileiro de Escultura (MuBE), founded in São Paulo in 1995.

 

For another article by Jacob Klintowitz on the international boycott of the São Paulo Biennial in 1969, see “A porta da cultura” [doc. no. 1110906].  

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Annotations

A X Bienal ficaria conhecida como a "Bienal do Boicote", em referência ao protesto motivado especialmente pelo episódio de censura imposta pelo Itamarati às obras expostas pelo Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro (MAM-RJ), que deveriam representar o Brasil na VI Bienal de Paris. Naquela ocasião, o museu carioca foi invadido pela polícia militar, que fechou a exposição dos artistas contemporâneos que participariam da mostra em Paris. No Brasil, o boicote foi liderado pelo crítico Mário Pedrosa, então presidente da Associação Brasileira de Críticos de Arte (ABCA), e alcançou diversos países, como Estados Unidos, França, México, Holanda, Suécia e Argentina, onde obteve apoio de muitos artistas consagrados para a causa. Jacob Klintowitz, jornalista e crítico de arte, foi colaborador dos jornais Tribuna da Imprensa (Rio de Janeiro) e Jornal da Tarde (São Paulo). Ocupa o cargo de curador do Museu Brasileiro de Escultura (MuBE) desde 2007.

 

m- Bienal de São Paulo

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Researcher
Equipe Brasil: Polyana Canhete
Team
FAPESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Credit
Authorized by Jacob Klintowitz, São Paulo, SP
Location
Arquivo Histórico Wanda Svevo, Fundação Bienal de São Paulo