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Hélio Oiticica presents his research into the transition from two-dimensional paintings to three-dimensional works of art, discussing some of his own projects—such as Invenções, Núcleos, and Penetráveis—and the designs for open air environments that he is working on. Oiticica refers to Mário Pedrosa’s critical thinking and proposes an innovative approach to constructive art which, he explains, is not limited to geometrical parameters. He discusses the work of several constructive artists, especially those who changed how we see and feel by creating unprecedented experiences in both space and time. He scrutinizes the works of Brazilian and international artists that can be considered “constructive,” such as: Joseph Albers, Jackson Pollock, Lygia Clark, and Amílcar de Castro, among others. Oiticica credits modern art with prompting the changes that have taken place in the interaction between subject and object, referring to how the viewer’s role has changed from passive contemplation to active involvement in the work of art. He is fully convinced that the concept of “form” is merely a synthesis of inter-related elements: space, time, structure, and color, thus underscoring the transcendental nature of color. In conclusion, he explains that his goal is to transform mankind’s daily life.
Hélio Oiticica apresenta o processo de transição entre pinturas bidimensionais e obras realizadas no espaço tridimensional, no âmbito de suas pesquisas artísticas. Comenta as séries Invenções, Núcleos, Penetráveis e os projetos em maquete de ambientes a serem construídos ao ar livre. Baseado no pensamento do crítico Mário Pedrosa, propõe uma nova concepção de arte construtiva e observa que esta não se restringe à geometria. Considera artistas construtivos aqueles que modificam os modos de ver e de sentir criando novos sentidos de espaço e de tempo. Analisa a produção de artistas nacionais e internacionais tidos como construtores, tais como Joseph Albers, Jackson Pollock, Lygia Clark e Amilcar de Castro, entre outros. Vincula a arte moderna às transformações ocorridas na relação entre sujeito e objeto. Destaca a mudança da postura contemplativa do espectador para uma atitude participativa em relação à obra. Afirma o conceito de forma como uma síntese de elementos inter-relacionados tais como espaço, tempo, estrutura e cor. Aponta o caráter transcendental da cor e declara que sua intenção é transformar o homem e o cotidiano.
In this article, Hélio Oiticica refers to certain ideas he had expressed in other essays written in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and reviews his involvement in the Brazilian constructive movement. He discusses his major works and some of his ideas concerning constructive art. Beginning in 1954—when he was a member of the Grupo Frente led by Ivan Serpa—writing about what he was doing became an integral part of his creative process. Oiticica did not sign the Manifesto Neoconcreto in 1959, but the following year he took part in the Segunda Exposição Neoconcreta, and became one of its main spokesmen in the areas of the theoretical and practical expressions of the constructive avant-garde.
Hélio Oiticica (1937–80) was a Brazilian Neo-Concrete artist. He started studying painting with Ivan Serpa in 1954 at the Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro. He later joined the Grupo Frente and the Neo-Concrete movement. In addition to his geometric paintings, which he worked on while he was studying with Serpa and was a member of the Grupo Frente, Oiticica produced performance and participatory art. His Parangolés (1964)—capes made with fabrics and recycled materials—were worn by the Mangueira Samba School during their performances. Oiticica also created immersive spaces, such as Nucleus (1959–60), which was an installation constructed from suspended painted wooden slats inspired by the Constructivism of Piet Mondrian. In 1967 Oiticica created the immersive environment Tropicália at the Museum of Modern Art in Rio de Janeiro. Tropicália was an installation consisting of rooms with plants and materials such as water, sand and stones, a parrot, a television set, and various other elements that were representative of Brazilian popular culture. The environment was designed to promote sensory stimulation. Oiticica applied the same principles to Eden, the installation he created in 1969 at the Whitechapel Gallery in London. The name Tropicália was used by Brazilian musicians to describe a new style that combined international music and pop with traditional Brazilian music. The term “Tropicália” was absorbed into popular Brazilian culture and came to signify a uniquely Brazilian essence. In 1970 Oiticica took part in the group exhibition Information at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
For more examples of Oiticica’s thoughts on Brazilian art in the late 1960s and early 1970s, see the essay “Esquema geral da nova objetividade” [doc. no. 1110372], the article “Aparecimento do suprasensorial na arte brasileira” [doc. no. 1110620], and the complementary text on his theory of color “Cor, tempo e estrutura” [doc. no. 1110353].
O documento sintetiza idéias desenvolvidas pelo artista Hélio Oiticica em diversos textos escritos entre o final da década de cinqüenta e o início da seguinte. Trata-se de um registro fundamental sobre a participação de Oiticica no movimento construtivo brasileiro. Nele, o artista comenta suas principais obras, bem como as peculiaridades de sua concepção de arte construtiva. A partir de 1954, a escrita passou a integrar o processo criativo do artista. Ele não assinou o Manifesto Neoconcreto, de 1959, mas participou, no ano seguinte, da II Exposição Neoconcreta, sendo um dos principais representantes desse movimento de revisão dos pressupostos teóricos e práticos das vanguardas construtivas. Ver também: OITICICA, Hélio. Amílcar de Castro. São Paulo, Habitat, n. 83, maio/ jun. 1965; OITICICA, Hélio. Cor, tempo e estrutura. Rio de Janeiro, Jornal do Brasil, 26 nov. 1960; OITICICA, Hélio. Sobre o "Projeto Cães de Caça". In: Aspiro ao grande labirinto. Rio de Janeiro: Rocco, 1986.
g- Arte neoconcreta
g- Contribuição de artistas ao projeto construtivo brasileiro