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  • ICAA Record ID
    1090830
    TITLE
    Arte concreta no Brasil : etapas da pintura contemporânea XXXIX - Arte concreta V / Ferreira Gullar
    IN
    Jornal do Brasil : suplemento dominical (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil). --- ago. 6, 1960
    DESCRIPTION
    p. 3 : ill.
    LANGUAGES
    Portuguese
    TYPE AND GENRE
    Newspaper article – Essays
    BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION
    Gullar, Ferreira. "Arte concreta no Brasil: Etapas da pintura contemporânea XXXIX - Arte concreta V." Jornal do Brasil: suplemento dominical (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), August 6, 1960, 3.
    NAME DESCRIPTORS
    Bienal do Museu do Arte Moderna de São Paul (5th : 1959); Grupo Frente
Editorial Categories [?]
Synopsis

This text is a historical balance sheet of Concrete art in Brazil. The art critic, Ferreira Gullar, introduces Concrete art as a movement of “rupture” whose radical nature contrasts with the painting that predominated in Brazil in the late 1940s. He highlights the artists who embraced abstract art starting in 1951—using the opening of the Iª Bienal de São Paulo as a historical framework. The writer highlights the art critic Mário Pedrosa (Rio de Janeiro) as the public figure who provided incentives for abstract art and Waldemar Cordeiro (São Paulo) as the theoretician par excellence of Concrete art. The prize awarded at this first São Paulo biennial to the Swiss artist, Max Bill—for his metal sculpture, Dreiteilige Einheit [Tripartite Unit]—represented a strong stimulus to the development of Concrete art in Brazil. Ferreira Gullar goes on to describe the emergence and importance of the Grupo Frente in Rio (1955) as well as the Grupo Ruptura in São Paulo (1952). Within these parameters, the Iª Exposição Nacional de Arte Concreta is introduced as a moment that reveals the striking differences between the two groups, marking the start of a new period for art of this kind in Brazil. Gullar considers Lygia Clark’s work to be a precursor of what ends up being called “Neo-Concrete art.” Finally, the writer mentions artists involved in Concrete art who were able to maintain their independence vis-à-vis both groups.

Leia esta sinopse em português
Synopsis

Histórico da arte concreta no Brasil. Apresenta a arte concreta como um movimento de ruptura com a pintura modernista predominante no país até os anos quarenta. Destaca os artistas que começaram a trabalhar com a abstração a partir de 1951. Aponta o crítico Mário Pedrosa como incentivador do abstracionismo e o artista Waldemar Cordeiro como teórico da arte concreta paulista. Afirma a I Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, em 1951, e a premiação do artista suíço Max Bill na mostra, como impulsos decisivos para o desenvolvimento da arte concreta brasileira. Descreve o surgimento e a importância do Grupo Frente, no Rio de Janeiro, e do Grupo Ruptura, em São Paulo. Apresenta a I Exposição Nacional de Arte Concreta como um momento de revelação das divergências entre paulistas e cariocas, a partir da qual se inicia uma nova etapa para a arte concreta no país. Considera as obras de Lygia Clark como experiências precursoras da arte neoconcreta. Por fim, menciona artistas concretos que se mantiveram independentes de grupos.

Revert to English synopsis
Annotations

 

The Iª Exposição Nacional de Arte Concreta was held in December 1956 in the Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo and subsequently (January–February 1957) at the building of the Ministerio da Educação e da Saúde, in Rio de Janeiro. The event became famous for bringing together poets and visual artists involved in Concrete art for the first time. Since the expo included artists from both Brazilian cities, what emerged were the commonalities and differences among the artists of the two cities. One of the art critics at the event was the journalist tied to the Jornal do Brasil, [José Ribamar] Ferreira Gullar (b. 1930). In addition, the intellectuals Mário Pedrosa, Waldemar Cordeiro, and José Geraldo Vieira weighed in on the differences between the visual focus of the artists from São Paulo and those from Rio de Janeiro.

 

This document is one in a series of articles called “Etapas da Arte Contemporânea,” published between March 1959 and October 1960 in the Suplemento Dominical do Jornal do Brasil. In recent years, they were published in a book, Ferreira Gullar: Etapas da arte contemporânea—do cubismo à arte neoconcreta (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Revan, 1998). In the book, the author explains his objective: The Neo-Concrete art movement should not be seen as a rejection of Concrete art, rather as an independent effort to raise awareness of the problems of contemporary art. The Concrete art ideas came from Ulm through Buenos Aires and were adopted with strict adherence to the models by the group of São Paulo artists headed by Waldemar Cordeiro in the early 1950s. In Rio, these same ideas were adapted through the intervention of their leading defender, Mário Pedrosa. In reviewing nonfigurative geometric art, the writer’s purpose was to reinforce the historical stance of the art that emerged from the group in Rio. In the course of this quest, he points out the unfortunate label, “Neo-,” which he finds inappropriate, considering the radical and questioning approach of Concrete art, in general.  

 

This text met the need to reinterpret Concrete art movements worldwide, which was also set forth in the “Manifesto Neoconcreto” (March 1959). That manifesto was another stimulus to the publication of this series of “periods” by Ferreira Gullar.

 

The interest of “Arte concreta no Brasil” lies in presenting a broad panorama of the Concrete art movement in Brazil through international references, exhibitions, groups, and artists who were essential to an overall view of the process. For additional information, see another article by the same writer, “I Exposição Nacional de Arte Concreta: I - O Grupo de São Paulo” [doc. no. 1087166].

 

Leia este comentário crítico em português
Annotations

O documento integra a série de artigos denominada "Etapas da Arte Contemporânea", publicada entre março de 1959 e outubro de 1960, no Suplemento Dominical do Jornal do Brasil. Neste conjunto de textos, o crítico e poeta Ferreira Gullar realiza uma revisão da arte não figurativa geométrica, do Cubismo ao Neoconcretismo, com o intuito de definir as raízes históricas da arte neoconcreta. Atende, portanto, à necessidade de reinterpretar os movimentos construtivos internacionais, já enunciada pelo autor no Manifesto Neoconcreto, de março de 1959. "Arte concreta no Brasil" tem a importância de apresentar um panorama amplo do movimento no país, apontando referências internacionais, exposições, agrupamentos e artistas fundamentais para a compreensão desse processo histórico.
Ver também:
CHAROUX, L. et al. Manifesto Ruptura. São Paulo, 1952.
CORDEIRO, W. O objeto. A & D, São Paulo, n. 20, nov./dez. 1956.
GULLAR, F. M. Neoconcreto. Jornal do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 22 mar. 1959.
PEDROSA, M. Paulistas e cariocas. Jornal do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 19 fev. 1957.
PEDROSA, M. Grupo Frente. Rio de Janeiro: Museu de Arte Moderna do rio de Janeiro, 1955. Catálogo de exposição.

 

g- Arte concreta

g- Arte neoconcreta

g- Contribuição de artistas ao projeto construtivo brasileiro

g- Grupos e manifestos

g- Referências internacionais acolhidas pelos artistas construtivos no Brasil

Revert to English annotations
Researcher
Heloisa Espada
Team
FAPESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Credit
Jornal do Brasil, August 6, 1960, p. 3/ CPDoc JB
Reproduced with the permission of Ferreira Gullar, Rio de Janeiro, BR.
Location
Centro de Pesquisa e Documentação do Jornal do Brasil