Publicado originalmente em:
O Estado de S. Paulo, São Paulo, 28 dez. 1963. Suplemento Literário
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Mário Pedrosa analyzes Lygia Clark’s artistic career beginning with the elimination of frames for her canvases (during the 1950s) through to the incorporation of the viewer’s action into her work (see her Bichos series) and the full integration of structures and materials (achieved through her “soft” works at the beginning of the 1960s). Clark achieves a dilution in the concept of “art” through her career by eliminating the distance between work and viewer, and by transforming her artistic proposals into a series of actions in real space and time. After changing the structure of the canvas, Clark begins to work with modulated structures (geometric) and later with three-dimensional space. By introducing hinges into objects created with different planes (as in the Bichos series), she reclaims the viewer’s participation and her work becomes an act that occurs in present time. In Pedrosa’s judgment, it is from that moment that her work commits to individual action rather than being concerned with issues of “form.”
Mário Pedrosa analisa o percurso artístico de Lygia Clark, desde a eliminação da moldura de suas telas, nos anos 1950, até a incorporação da ação do espectador na obra, com a série "Bichos", e a completa integração entre estruturas e materiais alcançada com a produção das obras moles, no início da década de 1960. Como conseqüência dessa trajetória, a artista chega à diluição do conceito de arte, suprime a distância entre a obra e o espectador, e transforma seu trabalho numa série de ações no espaço e tempo reais. Após alterar a estrutura do quadro de cavalete, Clark passa a trabalhar com superfícies geométricas moduladas e, em seguida, com o espaço tridimensional. Ao inserir dobradiças nos objetos formados por diferentes planos, criando a série "Bichos", a artista reivindica a participação do espectador e seu trabalho torna-se um acontecimento no tempo presente. A partir daí, segundo Pedrosa, sua produção está mais comprometida com o comportamento dos indivíduos diante da existência do que com questões formais.
Mário Pedrosa presents the utopian dimension of Lygia Clark’s (1920–88) art in this text. Clark pursues a total integration of art and life through the elimination of dichotomies and hierarchies between figure and background, space and surface, structure and material, interior and exterior, artist and viewer. In his analysis of her artistic career, Pedrosa partially touches on the developments within Brazilian constructive art during the 1960s; at the end of the previous decades, the proposals of constructivist artists imposed the concrete existence of formal elements within real space; during that era the work of Clark, Hélio Oiticica and Lygia Pape (among other agents of the “neo-concrete” movement) took on certain sensorial characteristics that asserted the direct action (at times corporeal) of the artist and the viewer, both immersed in “the now.”
[As complementary reading, see the following texts by Mário Pedrosa in the ICAA digital archive: “Lygia Clark” (doc. no. 1111070); and “Lygia Clark at Signals London: 27th May to 3rd July. The significance of Lygia Clark” (doc. no. 1232662)].
Mário Pedrosa (1900–81) was an intellectual and politician, and undoubtedly the key theoretician and critic on Brazilian art of the 20th century. He began as an international politics correspondent for the Diário da Noite, and beginning in the 1920s he was affiliated with the PCB (Communist Party of Brazil). He was imprisoned in 1932 because of his political militancy (Trotskyism). During the Estado Novo of Getúlio Vargas, he lived in exile in France and New York, and only returned to Brazil after the Second World War, when he worked for the Correio da Manhã. His stance against Stalinism led him to found the Vanguarda Socialista, a weekly publication. He presented a thesis on aesthetics called “Da natureza afetiva da forma na obra de arte” (1949) at the School of Architecture (Rio) that made use of his philosophical background, and his knowledge of Gestalt psychology; during that time he was also one of the founders of the AICA (1948) and also organized the International Conference of Art Critics (Brasilia, 1959). He wrote an arts column for the Tribuna da Imprensa (1950–54) and was an organizing member of the II and III São Paulo Biennials (1953 and 1955), later becoming director of the MAM-SP (1961–63). He served as secretary for the National Council of Culture during the brief government of Jânio Quadros. During the military dictatorship he took refuge in Chile, where he became director of the Museo de la Solidaridad in Santiago; after the Pinochet coup (1973), he left for Havana, where he served as secretary for the Museo de la Resistencia Salvador Allende. He only returned to Brazil in 1977 (at the beginning of the amnesty) and was the first to sign the manifesto creating the PT (Party of Workers, 1980). His vast library (which included eight thousand volumes) is partially available at the national library in Rio de Janeiro.
Neste texto, Mário Pedrosa apresenta a dimensão utópica da produção artística de Lygia Clark. Ao eliminar dicotomias e hierarquias entre figura e fundo, espaço e superfície, estrutura e matéria, interior e exterior, artista e espectador, Clark busca a integração total entre arte e vida. Por meio da análise do percurso da artista, Pedrosa expõe parte dos desdobramentos da arte construtiva no Brasil no decorrer dos anos 1960. Na década anterior, os artistas construtivos locais impunham sobretudo a existência concreta de elementos formais no espaço real. No fim dos anos 1950, trabalhos de Clark, Hélio Oiticica, Lygia Pape e de outros agentes do movimento neoconcreto, ganham características sensoriais e passam a reivindicar a ação direta e, muitas vezes, corporal, do artista e do espectador no tempo presente.
g- Contribuição de artistas ao projeto construtivo brasileiro