Documents of 20th-century Latin American and Latino Art Home


Document first page thumbnail

In the book 11 tipos. Arte en Venezuela en los años setenta, the researcher Juan Carlos Palenzuela makes an exhaustive study of Venezuelan art in the1970s, a time when conceptual art was unquestionably being produced in that country. The author bases his analysis on several exhibitions that were presented at the Sala Mendoza (Caracas) under the title Once Tipos (despite the fact that the number of participating artists varied from one event to another). The book is arranged in thirteen sections: Presentation Notes; Epigraphs; Eleven Brief Points; Preliminary Meetings; Another Time in Art; 11 Types are 33 Artists; Many Types: the art of a period; Public Debate in the Press; Works from one Decade; Trends in the late 1970s; Art in Venezuela. Conclusions; Chronology and Sources. 


The book 11 tipos. Arte en Venezuela en los años setenta by Juan Carlos Palenzuela (1954–2007) is a key reference work for understanding the origins, development, and scope of conceptual art in Venezuela and the versatile use of non-artistic materials. Palenzuela’s article is chock full of bibliographical references from a variety of sources, such as programs, valuations of the works, catalogues, hemerographic references, interviews, post cards, technical specifications for the pieces, and conceptual and visual analyses of all the works and participants in each of the various Once Tipos exhibitions. He also lists the collections where some of the works in these exhibitions are permanently housed. The wealth of information in this article helps present-day researchers to explore this period in the history of Venezuela’s artistic avant-garde and study additional, complementary aspects of the country’s conceptual art.


The researcher belongs to the same generation of artists whose works were included in the Once Tipos exhibitions at the Sala Mendoza. Palenzuela refers to the same sort of codes that his artist friends use, especially in terms of conceptual art discourse. Reading between the lines, it is clear that this book pays tribute to another researcher and curator, Lourdes Blanco who, ever since that landmark decade, has done so much to consolidate and promote conceptual art in Venezuela. This book was published in 2002, but it nonetheless shines considerable light on the last twenty years of Venezuelan art. 


See also Roberto Montero Castro’s review of the exhibition Once Tipos de 1977 (Sala Mendoza, Caracas), titled “El seguro vuelo del pájaro de la juventud” [doc. no. 1067487], and the article by Elsa Flores, who reviews the various works presented by the participating artists, “Los ‘Once Tipos’ y un premio” [doc. no. 1059513].

Sagrario Berti
Fundación Mercantil, Caracas, Venezuela
Reproduced with the permission of Ana Caufman, Caracas, Venezuela
Biblioteca María Elena Huizi, Caracas